Australia's health landscape
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Australia has a key role to play in global health.
Australia's health landscape has four tiers:
- The first and largest tier is 'determinants of health and other demographic factors'. This includes education, employment, income, family and community, rural and remote and Indigenous Australians.
- The second tier is 'health promotion and disease prevention'. This includes immunisation, food, physical activity, illicit drug use, tobacco control, alcohol consumption, mental health and cancer screening.
- The third tier is 'primary health and community care'. This includes dental practice, pharmacy, allied health, general practice, primary health networks, community care and aged care.
- The fourth and smallest tier is 'specialist, acute and residential care'. This includes specialist services (including out patient), diagnostic and pathology, local hospital networks, residential care and secondary and tertiary hospitals (public and private).
Factors that contribute to the health landscape:
- Impacts on individuals' health and healthcare support.
- Opportunities and challenges, including consumer and clinician expectation, ageing population, impact of technology and chronic disease.
- Supporting regulations and infrastructure, including research and data analytics, information technology, quality and safety, infrastructure and workforce.
- Health system funding of $2.3 trillion over the next 10 years. The funding in 2014-15 was $182 billion including aged care. 11.9% was spent on aged care, 36.1% on hospitals, 32.7% on primary care and 19.3% on other recurrent costs. $58 billion came from individuals and the private sector, $43 billion from state and territory governments and $81 billion from the Australian Government. The Australian Government funding was for (from largest to smallest):
- Medicare Benefits Schedule
- hospital funding
- aged care
- Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme
- private health insurance
- consolidated funds