What you need to know about coronavirus (COVID-19)
COVID-19 is an illness caused by a new virus. There is no vaccination or cure yet. Find out about the disease, how it spreads, who is at risk, what to do if you think you have it, and what resources and support are available to you.
What is COVID-19
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause respiratory infections. These can range from the common cold to more serious diseases.
COVID-19 is a disease caused by a new form of coronavirus. It was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan City in China.
Symptoms of COVID-19 can range from mild illness to pneumonia. Some people will recover easily, and others may get very sick very quickly. People with coronavirus may experience symptoms such as:
- respiratory symptoms
- sore throat
- shortness of breath
Other symptoms can include runny nose, headache, muscle or joint pains, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, loss of sense of smell, altered sense of taste, loss of appetite and fatigue.
To stop the spread of COVID-19 people with even mild symptoms of respiratory infection should get tested.
If you are concerned you may have COVID-19:
If you do not have any symptoms, you should still protect yourself and others.
How it spreads
The virus can spread from person to person through:
- close contact with an infectious person (including in the 48 hours before they had symptoms)
- contact with droplets from an infected person’s cough or sneeze
- touching objects or surfaces (like doorknobs or tables) that have droplets from an infected person, and then touching your mouth or face
COVID-19 is a new disease, so there is no existing immunity in our community. This means that COVID-19 could spread widely and quickly.
See how to protect yourself and others.
Who is most at risk
In Australia, the people most at risk of getting the virus are:
- travellers who have recently been overseas
- those who have been in close contact with someone who has been diagnosed with COVID-19
- people in correctional and detention facilities
- people in group residential settings
People who are, or are more likely to be, at higher risk of serious illness if they get the virus are:
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 50 years and older with one or more chronic medical conditions
- people 65 years and older with chronic medical conditions
- people 70 years and older
- people with chronic conditions or compromised immune systems
- people in aged care facilities
- people with a disability
At this stage the risk to children and babies, and the role children play in the transmission of COVID-19, is not clear. However, there has so far been a low rate of confirmed COVID-19 cases among children, relative to the broader population. For more information about COVID-19 and children please read this fact sheet.
There is limited evidence at this time regarding the risk in pregnant women.
See our advice for people at risk.
Protect yourself and others
Everyone must do the following things to slow the spread of COVID-19 and protect those who are most at risk.
If you have travelled recently, see our advice for travellers.
How to seek medical attention
If you are sick and think you have symptoms of COVID-19, seek medical advice and get tested. If you want to talk to someone about your symptoms, call the National Coronavirus Helpline for advice.
To seek medical help from a doctor or hospital, call ahead of time to book an appointment.
You will be asked to take precautions when you attend for treatment. Follow the instructions you are given.
If you have a mask, wear it to protect others. Stay at least 1.5 metres away from other people. Cover your coughs or sneezes with your elbow.
Tell the doctor about:
- your symptoms
- any travel history
- any recent contact you have had with someone who has COVID-19
How to get tested
If you have cold or flu like symptoms, such as a cough, fever, sore throat, shortness of breath or runny nose, even if these are mild, you should get tested for COVID-19 as soon as possible. People with mild symptoms can still spread the virus. To help stop the spread of COVID-19, anyone with cold or flu-like symptoms should get tested.
As part of Australia’s response to COVID-19, public health units around Australia have increased testing. People may have a COVID-19 test for several reasons. You can find more guidance for people who are tested under these enhanced procedures for COVID-19.
If you need to get tested, you can:
- attend a free COVID-19 respiratory clinic
- contact your doctor and they will arrange the test, this may attract a fee
COVID-19 respiratory clinics are dedicated health centres located around the country, focusing on testing people with symptoms of respiratory infection.
Find the COVID-19 respiratory clinic nearest to you.
If your symptoms are severe, you should seek urgent medical attention. If possible, call ahead so the medical facility can prepare.
If it is a medical emergency, please call 000.
Early diagnosis means you can get the help you need and take steps to avoid spreading the virus to someone else.
Testing diagnoses patients with COVID-19 and helps health authorities monitor and track the spread of COVID-19. As the situation changes, states and territories may adjust their testing criteria based on local needs. For latest information check your state or territory health website.
Testing is important for anyone with symptoms and particularly if any of the following apply to you:
- you have returned from overseas in the past 14 days
- you have been in close contact with someone diagnosed with COVID-19 in the past 14 days
- you are a health care, aged care or residential care worker or staff member with direct patient contact
- you have lived in or travelled through an area where there is a higher risk of community transmission, as defined by the local public health unit
- you travelled on a cruise ship (either passenger or crew) in the 14 days before developing symptoms
People in high-risk settings will be regularly monitored to ensure symptoms are identified early. Rapid response plans will be activated if someone in those settings develops a fever or respiratory symptoms. People who have recovered from COVID-19 need to be tested before they can go into high risk settings.
High-risk settings include:
- aged and residential care facilities
- detention centres or correctional facilities
- boarding schools
- military group residences and other closed settings, such as Navy ships or live-in accommodation
- rural and remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
If you get tested for the virus, or you have symptoms, you need to stay at home and avoid contact with other people. You will need to do this until you either have a negative test result or your symptoms have gone – whichever is longer. It may take a day or 2 for your test results to come back.
If you have serious symptoms you will be kept in hospital and isolated from other patients to prevent the virus spreading.
If your doctor says you are well enough to go home while you wait for your test results, you should:
For questions about testing or patient welfare, call the National Coronavirus Helpline.
Currently there is no treatment that cures or prevents COVID-19. There are some treatments that can help people who are very seriously ill.
COVID-19 is caused by a virus. Antibiotics do not work on viruses.
There is no cure or treatment to prevent COVID-19. Studies show an antiviral drug called remdesivir can help very sick adults and young people get out of hospital quicker. This drug now has provisional approval by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), so it can be used in Australia in some cases. This includes very sick people in hospital who need oxygen or more help to breathe. There is also evidence that a steroid called dexamethasone may lower the risk of death for some people with COVID-19. This includes people who are very sick and need oxygen or are on a ventilator. A number of other possible treatments are being tested.
Some reports suggest hydroxychloroquine can be used to treat COVID-19. The Therapeutic Goods Administration has not approved hydroxychloroquine for treating COVID-19, in Australia.
We are supporting research to find effective treatments for the virus. There is no approved vaccine for COVID-19, but global efforts to develop a vaccine continue.
Limits on medications
Many Australians need medication to manage a health condition. Medication shortages can threaten lives.
To make sure everyone has access to the medications they need, pharmacies must limit sales of some prescription and over the counter medications.
A temperature check is when a monitoring device, such as a contactless thermometer or thermal imaging, checks whether someone has a fever. In places like hospitals and aged care facilities, temperature checks may be useful as an extra precaution to protect vulnerable people. Some places might test visitors as well as workers.
Temperature checks are not as useful in other settings. People with COVID-19 don’t always develop fever, or they might have a fever from another illness. Some medications reduce fever.
COVID-19 and breastfeeding
Women are encouraged to continue breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Read our advice on COVID-19 and breastfeeding.
See our answers to frequently asked questions about COVID-19.
For what we are doing to limit the spread of COVID-19, go to Government response to the outbreak.
The Australian Government is providing additional Medicare-subsidised psychological therapy sessions for Australians affected by the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Visit the Head to Health website:
- links to mental health online and phone support
- resources and services that can help if you’re experiencing mental health concerns or trying to support someone else
Beyond Blue Coronavirus Mental Wellbeing Support Service
Beyond Blue are providing information, advice and strategies to help you manage your wellbeing and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.