A range of factors continue to place Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander gay men, other men who have sex with men, sistergirls and transgender people at particular risk of infection, including:
- barriers to accessing some health services, including testing services, for reasons of actual or perceived homophobia, racism, discrimination and cultural insensitivity
- high levels of population mobility, including movement between communities and between urban, rural and remote settings
- low levels of HIV awareness, including prevention, treatment and care options
- lack of acceptance of homosexuality and transgender status ithin some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
- alcohol and other drug use
- where there is a culture of violence towards Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander gay men and sistergirls.