Guidance on use of rainwater tanks

Bibliography

Page last updated: March 2011

Abbott S, Caughley B and Douwes J (2007) The microbiological quality of roof-collected rainwater of private dwellings in New Zealand. Rainwater and Urban Design Conference 21-23 August 2007 Sydney, Australia.

ACTEW 1994, ACT future water supply strategy: Our water our future, ACT Electricity and Water, Canberra.

Adams, MR & Moss, MO 2000, Food Microbiology (2nd ed), Royal Society for Chemistry, United Kingdom.

Ahmed W, Huygens F, Goonetilleke A and Gardner T (2008). Real-time PCR detection of pathogenic microorganisms in roof-harvested rainwater in South East Queensland, Australia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74, pp. 5490-5496.

Ahmed W, Vieritz A, Gardner T and Goonetilleke A (2009). Microbial risks from rainwater tanks in South East Queensland. Water 36 (8), pp. 80-85.

ABS 2007, Environmental issues, people’s views and practices, Australian Bureau of Statistics, cat. no. 4602.0, Canberra.

ABS 2000, Water account for Australia, Australian Bureau of Statistics, cat. no. 4610.0, Canberra.

Bannister R, Westwood J, McNeill A (1997) Investigation of microbiological and chemical quality in rainwater tanks in Victoria, Melbourne, Water ECOscience, Report No. 139/97 – Victorian Department of Natural Resources and Environment, unpublished draft report.

Body P 1986, The contamination of rainwater tanks at Port Pirie, South Australian Department for Environment and Planning, Adelaide.

Brodribb R Webster P & Farrell D 1995, ‘Recurrent Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus bacteraemia in a febrile neutropaenic patient linked to tank water’, Communicable Disease Intelligence, vol. 19, pp. 312-13.

Byard RW (2008) Rainwater tank drowning Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 15 (8), pp. 533-534.

Campbell M 2001 ‘Toxic shock’. Gardening Australia February 2001, pp. 32-36.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention 1995, ‘Assessing the public health threat associated with waterborne cryptosporidiosis: report of a workshop’, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 44 no. RR-6, pp. 1-15. Report Mortality Report.

Chapman H, Cartwright T, Huston R, and O’Toole (2008). Water quality and health risks from urban rainwater tanks. Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment, Research Report 42.

Chapman H, Gardner T, Huston R, Chan A and Shaw G (2006) Chemical water quality and health risk assessment of urban rainwater tanks 7th International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling and the 4th International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design 2006 Sydney, Australia.

Chappell CL & Okhuysen PC 2002, ‘Cryptosporidiosis’, Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 15, pp. 523-27.

Coombes PJ, Dunstan H, Spinks A, Evans C and Harrison T (2006) Key Messages from a Decade of Water Quality Research into Roof Collected Rainwater Supplies 1st National HYDROPOLIS Conference 2006 Perth, Australia.

Coombes PJ, Kuczera G, Argue JR, Cosgrove F, Arthur D, Bridgeman HA & Enright K 1999, ‘Design monitoring and performance of the water sensitive urban development at Figtree Place in Newcastle’, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage, Sydney, Australia pp. 1319-26. (www.newcastle.edu.au/staff/directory/coombes_peter_281.html)

Coombes PJ, Argue JR & Kuczera G 2000, ‘Figtree Place: A case study in water sensitive urban development’, Urban Water, vol. 1 (4), pp. 335-43.

Coombes PJ, Kuczera G, Argue J & Kalma JD 2002a, ‘An evaluation of the benefits of source control measures at the regional scale’, Urban Water, vol. 4 (4), 307-320.

Coombes PJ, Kuczera G & Kalma JD 2002b, ‘Rainwater quality from roofs, tanks and hot water systems at Fig Tree Place’, Proceedings of the 3rd International Hydrological and Water Resources Symposium, Perth, Australia pp. 152-57, (www.newcastle.edu.au/staff/directory/coombes_peter_281.html)

Coombes PJ, Kuczera G & Kalma JD 2002c, ‘Economic, water quantity and quality results from a house with a rainwater tank in the inner city’, Proceedings of the 27th Hydrological and Water Resources Symposium, Melbourne, Australia, (www.newcastle.edu.au/staff/directory/coombes_peter_281.html)

Top of Page

Conway C, Nicholson C, Bammer G, Wade A & Henderson G 1999, ‘Rainfall harvesting for Indigenous health in Australia’, Ninth International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference Proceedings, (www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/ircsa/)

Crabtree KD, Ruskin RH, Shaw SB & Rose JB 1996, ‘The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in cistern water in the US Virgin Islands’, Water Research, vol.30, pp. 208-16.

Craun G & Calderon RL 2001, ‘Waterborne disease outbreaks caused by distribution system deficiencies’, Journal of the American Waterworks Association, vol. 93(9), pp. 64-75.

D’Aoust JY, Park CE, Szabo RA, Todd EC, Emmons DB, McKeller RC 1988, ‘Thermal inactivation of Campylobacter species, Yersinia enterocolitica and hemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in fluid milk’, Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 71, pp. 3230-36.

Dillaha TA & Zolan WJ 1985, ‘Rainwater catchment water quality in Micronesia’, Water Research , pp. 741-46.

Doggett, SL & Russell, RC 1997, ‘Aedes notoscriptus can transmit coastal and inland isolates of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses from New South Wales’, Arbovirus Research in Australia, vol. 7, pp. 79-81.

Edwards R 1994, ‘A microbiological investigation into the degree of contamination of water in domestic rain water storage tanks with residents of Noosa Shire solely supported by tank water, 1993’, 54th Annual State Conference of the Australian Institute of Environmental Health (Qld Division), Ipswich, Queensland, pp. 308-25.

Eberhart-Phillips J, Walker N, Garrett N, Bell D, Sinclair D, Rainger W & Bates M 1997, ‘Campylobacteriosis in New Zealand: results of a case-control study’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 51, pp. 686-91.

Edberg SC, Rice EW, Karlin RJ and Allen MJ (2000) Escherichia coli: the best biological drinking water indicator for public health protection. Journal of Applied Microbiology Symposium Supplement 88, 106S-116S.

Eisenberg JNS, Bartram J and Hunter PR (2001) A public health perspective for establishing water-related guidelines and standards In L Fewtrell and J Batram eds Water Quality: Guidelines, Standards and Health. Published for the World Health Organization by IWA Publishing, London, UK.

Evans C, Coombes P, Dunstan H, Harrison T, Martin A and Morrow A (2007) Roof harvested rainwater – indicator organisms, water quality and risk assessment. Rainwater and Urban Design Conference 21-23 August 2007 Sydney, Australia.

Feachem RG, Bradley DJ, Garelick H & Mara DD 1983, Sanitation and disease: Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management, World Bank. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Fujioka RS & Chin RD 1987, ‘The microbiological quality of cistern waters in the Tantalus area of Honolulu’, Third International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference Proceedings. (www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/ircsa/)

Fuller CO, Martin TJ & Walters RP 1981, Quality aspects of water stored in domestic rainwater tanks (a preliminary study), Engineering and Water Supply Department, South Australia.

Gardner T, Hyde R, Millar G & Vieritz A 2002, ‘The healthy home – a step towards greening paradise’, 4th Queensland Environmental Engineering Conference.

Gee L 1993, Pilot survey of the microbiological and chemical aspects of water stored in domestic rainwater tanks, Western Sector Public Health Unit, New South Wales, Department of Health.

Gerba CP, Rose JB, Haas CN & Crabtree KD 1996, ‘Waterborne rotavirus: a risk assessment’, Water Research, vol. 30, pp. 2929-40.

Gibson C (2008) Rainwater tanks pose risk for toddlers, Media Release, The University of Adelaide, accessed 8/02/2010 (www.adelaide.edu.au/news/news28961.html)

Grey-Gardner R 2002, ‘Mutitjulu rainwater tank and point of use water treatment system trial’, Fourth National Indigenous Environmental Health Conference Proceedings, Adelaide.

Grey-Gardner R, Wright, A and Boyce S (2005) Harvesting water that falls on country; Planning for rainwater tanks in remote Australia, Centre for Appropriate Technology, Alice Springs. (www.icat.org.au/media/Resources/water/CAT-CRCWQT2006-Harvesting-water-that-falls-on-country-Guidance%20Manual.pdf)

Haas CN 1983, ‘Estimation of risk due to low doses of microorganisms: a comparison of alternative methodologies’, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.. 11118, pp. 573-82.

Haeber RH & Waller DH 1987, ‘Water quality of rainwater collection systems in the Eastern Caribbean’, Third International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference Proceedings, (www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/ircsa/).

Hanna, JN, Ritchie SA, Merrit AD, van den Hurk AF, Phillips DA, Serafi n IL, Norton RE, McBride WJH, Gleeson FV & Poidinger M 1998, ‘Two contiguous outbreaks of dengue type 2 in north Queensland’, Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 168, pp. 221-25.

Harp JA, Fayer R, Pesch BA & Jackson GJ 1996, ‘Effect of pasteurisation on infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water and milk’, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 62, pp. 2866-68.

Hernandez J, Bonnedahl J, Waldenstrom J, Plamgren H & Olsen B 2003, ‘Salmonella in birds migrating through Sweden’, Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 9, pp. 753-54.

Heyworth JS, Glonek G & Maynard EJ 1999, ‘The prevalence of gastroenteritis amongst young children and the potential role of drinking water’, Proceedings of the 18th Federal Convention, Australian Water and Wastewater Association.

Heyworth JS, Glonek G, Maynard EJ, Baghurt PA and Finlay-Jones J (2006) Consumption of untreated tank rainwater and gastroenteritis among young children in South Australia International Journal of Epidemiology vol. 35(4) pp. 1051-1058.

Heyworth JS 2001, ‘A diary study of gastroenteritis and tank rainwater consumption in young children in South Australia’, Third International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference Proceedings. (www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/ircsa/)

Heyworth JS, Maynard EJ & Cunliffe D 1998, ‘Who drinks what: potable water consumption in South Australia’, Water, vol. 25, pp. 9-13.

Top of Page

Hunter PR and Thompson RCA (2005) The zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. International Journal of Parasitology 35, pp. 1181-1190.

Huston R, Chan YC, Gardner T, Shaw G and Chapman H (2009) Characterisation of atmospheric deposition as a source of contaminants in urban rainwater tanks Water Research 43, pp. 1630-1640.

Kay BH, Barker-Hudson P, Stallman ND, Wiemers MA, Marks EN, Holt PJ, Muscio M & Gorman BM 1984, ‘Dengue fever. Reappearance in Northern Queensland after 26 years’, Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 140, pp. 264-68.

Koenrad PMFJ, Rombouts FM & Notermans SHW 1997, ‘Epidemiological aspects of thermophilic Campylobacter in water-related environments: A review’, Water Environment Research, vol. 69, pp. 52-63.

Koplan JP, Deen RD, Swanston WH & Tota B 1978, ‘Contaminated roof-collected rainwater as a possible cause of an outbreak of salmonellosis’, Journal of Hygiene, vol. 81, pp. 303-309.

Lester R 1992, ‘A mixed outbreak of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis’, Update, vol. 1(1), pp. 14-15.

Magyar MI, Mitchell VG, Ladson AR and Diaper C (2008) Lead and other heavy metals: common contaminants of rainwater tanks in Melbourne Water Down Under 14-17 April 2008.

Martin TJ 1980, Supply aspects of domestic rainwater tanks, South Australian Department for the Environment, Adelaide.

McLauchlin J, Amar C, Pedraza-Diaz S & Nichols GL 2000, ‘Molecular epidemiological analysis of Cryptosporidium spp. in the United Kingdom: results of genotyping Cryptosporidium spp. in 1705 fecal samples from humans and 105 fecal samples from livestock animals’, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 38, pp. 3984-90.

Merritt A, Miles R & Bates J 1999, ‘An outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis on an island resort north Queensland’, Communicable Disease Intelligence, vol. 23, pp. 215-19.

Mitchell VG, Mein RG & McMahon TA 1997, ‘Evaluating the resource potential of stormwater and wastewater; an Australian perspective’, Australian Journal of Water Resources, vol. 2(1), pp. 19-22.

Mobbs M 1998, Sustainable House, Choice Books, Australia.

Morgan-Ryan U, Fall A, Ward LA, Hijjawi N, Sulaiman I, Fayer R, Thompson RCA, Olson M, Lal A & Xiao L 2002, ‘Cryptosporidium hominis n.sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens’, Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, vol. 49, pp. 433-39. ’, Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology National Research Council 1998, Issues in Potable Reuse, National Academy Press, Washington DC.

National Water Commission (2007) The cost effectiveness of rainwater tanks in urban Australia. Commonwealth of Australia.

New South Wales Environment Protection Authority and Northern Districts Public Morrow A, Coombes P, Dunstan H, Evans C and Martin A (2007) Elements in Tank Water – Comparisons with mains water and effects of locality and roofing materials Rainwater and Urban Design Conference 21-23 August 2007 Sydney, Australia.

Health Unit, New South Wales, Department of Health 1996, ‘Rainwater tank pesticide sampling survey – Namoi Valley April-May 1996’, unpublished report.

NHMRC 1991, The effectiveness of water fluoridation, National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

NHMRC/ARMCANZ 1996, Australian drinking water guidelines, National Health and Medical Research Council/Agricultural and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, Commonwealth of Australia.

Top of Page

Northern Territory of Australia 1998, Public Health (General Sanitation, Mosquito prevention, rat exclusion and prevention) Regulations 1998.

Okhuysen PC, Chappell CL, Crabb JH, Sterling CR & DuPont AL 1999, ‘Virulence of three distinct Cryptosporidium parvum isolates for healthy adults’, Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 180, pp. 1275-81.

Paskevich V 1992, Rainwater tank pesticide survey, 1991-1992, Orana and Far West Region Public Health Unit, New South Wales, Department of Health.

Pedraza-Diaz S, Amar CF, McLauchlin J, Nichols GL, Cotton KM, Godwin P, Iversen AM, Milne L, Mulla JR, Nye K, Panigrahl H, Venn SR, Wiggins R, Williams M & Youngs ER 2001, ‘Cryptosporidium meleagridis from humans: molecular analysis and description of affected patients’, Journal of Infection, vol. 42, pp. 243-50.

Pezzaniti D 2003, Drainage system benefits of catchment-wide use of rainwater tanks. Urban Water Resources, University of South Australia, Consultancy report, Department of Environment and Heritage.

Queensland Health Public Health Regulation 2005.

Refsum T, Handeland K, Baggesen DL, Holstad G & Kapperud G 2002, ‘Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000’, Applied and Environmental MicrobiologyApplied , Microbiology vol. 68, pp. 5595-99.

Regli S, Rose JB, Haas CN & Gerba CP 1991, ‘Modeling the risk from Giardia and viruses in drinking water’, Journal of the American Water Works Association, vol. 83(11), pp.76-84.

Ritchie S, Montgomery B & Walsh I 2002, ‘Production of mosquitoes in rainwater tanks and wells on Yorke Island, Torres Strait: preliminary study’, Environmental Health, vol. 2(2), pp. 13-14.

Rodrigo S, Leder K and Sinclair M (2009) Quality of stored rainwater used for drinking in metropolitan South Australia. Water Quality Research Australia.
http://www.wqra.com.au/publications/report_84_quality_rainwater.pdf (accessed May 2010).

Rodrigo S, Sinclair M, Forbes A, Cunliffe D and Leder K (2010) A double-blinded randomised controlled trial investigating the use of untreated rainwater for drinking American Journal of Public Health Accepted for publication.

Rose JB & Gerba CP 1991, ‘Use of risk assessment for development of microbial standards’, Water Science Technology, vol. 24(2), pp. 29-34.

SAA/SNZ HB170 Wood heating resource handbook, Guide to the selection, installation and operation of wood heaters, Standards Australia, Standards New Zealand.

Savill MG, Hudson JA, Ball A, Klena JD, Scoles P, Whyte RJ, McCormick RE & Jankovic D 2001, ‘Enumeration of Campylobacter in New Zealand recreational and drinking waters’, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 91, pp. 38-46.

Scott RH & Waller DH 1987, ‘Water quality aspects of a rain water cistern system in Nova Scotia, Canada’, Third International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference Proceedings, (www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/ircsa/).

Sinclair MI, Leder K and Chapman H (2005) Public health aspects of rainwater tanks in urban Australia. Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment, Occasional Paper 10.

Simmons G, Hope V, Lewis G, Whitmore J & Gao W 2001, ‘Contamination of potable roof-collected rainwater in Auckland, New Zealand’, Water Research, vol. 35, pp. 1518-24.

Simmons G, Jury S, Thornley C, Harte D, Mohiuddin J and Taylor M (2008) A Legionnaires’ disease outbreak, a water blaster and roof-collected rainwater systems Water Research 42(6-7) pp. 1449-1458.

Simmons GC & Smith J 1997, ‘Roof water probable source of Salmonella infection’, NZ Public Health Report, vol. 4(1), p. 5.

Spinks J, Phillips S, Robinson P and Van Buynder P (2006) Bushfires and tank rainwater quality: A cause for concern? Journal of Water and Health Vol. 4(1), pp. 21-28.

Standards Australia 1999, AS 2070: Plastics materials for food contact use, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 1994, AS/NZS 2179.1: Specifications for rainwater goods, accessories and fasteners, Standard Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 1986, AS 2180: Metal rainwater goods – selection and installation, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2003, AS/NZS 3500: National plumbing and drainage code, Standards Australia, Sydney.

Standards Australia 2002, AS/NZS 4020: Testing of products for use in contact with drinking water, Standards Association of Australia, Sydney.

Taylor R, Sloan D, Cooper T, Morton B & Hunter I 2000, ‘A waterborne outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul’, Communicable Disease Intelligence, vol. 24, pp. 336-40.

Thurman R 1995, ‘Evaluation of rainwater stored in collection tanks’, Australian Microbiologist, March, pp. 20-22.

United Nations Committee on Economic, Cultural and Social Rights 2002 General Comment No. 15. The right to water (articles 11 and 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights). Twenty-ninth Session, Geneva E/C.12/2002/11.

Van der Wel B 2000, ‘Increasing the viability of urban runoff and sewage effluent as supplementary sources of water in country towns of South Australia’, Australian Journal of Water Resources, vol. 4(2), pp. 89-97.

Victorian Department of Natural Resources and Environment 1997, ‘Investigation of microbiological and chemical quality in rainwater tanks in Victoria’, unpublished draft report.

Top of Page

Water Corporation (Western Australia) 2002, Planning for Perth’s water needs, Water Corporation, Perth.

Water Resources Strategy for the Melbourne Area Committee 2001, Discussion starter: Stage 1 in developing a water resources strategy for the Greater Melbourne area.

Water Services Association of Australia 2001, Water consumption fact sheet.

Whelan CD, Monaghan P, Girdwood RWA & Fricker CR 1983, ‘The significance of wild birds (Larus sp.) in the epidemiology of Campylobacter infections in humans’, Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 101, pp. 259-67.

Wirojanagud W 1987, ‘Rainwater contamination’, Third International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference Proceedings. (www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/ircsa/)

WHO 1997, Dengue haemorrhagic fever: diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control, control (second edition), World Health Organization, Geneva.

WHO 2002, Heterotrophic plate count measurement in water safety management World Health Organization, Geneva.

WHO 2007, Legionella and the prevention of Legionellosis Eds Bartram J, Chartier Y, Lee JV, Pond K and Surman-Lee S. World Health Organization, Geneva.

WHO 2008, Guidelines for drinking-water quality (third edn including the first and second addenda), World Health Organization, Geneva.

Xiao L and Fayer R 2008 Molecular characterization of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and assessment of zoonotic transmission. International Journal of Parasitology 38, pp. 1239-1255.

Yaziz MI, Gunting H, Sapari N & Ghazali AW 1989, ‘Variations in rainwater quality from roof catchments’, Water Research, vol. 23, pp. 761-65.