Outcomes and indicators, measurement tools and databases for the national action plan for promotion, prevention and early intervention for mental health 2000

Depression - adults

Page last updated: 2002

Zung Self-rating Depression Scale
Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and BDI-II
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
Geriatric Depression Scale

Zung Self-rating Depression ScaleA

Reference

Zung 1965

Description

  • Type: Self-rated questionnaire; rated on 4-point scale. An index can be calculated by dividing the raw total by the maximum possible score.
  • Content: 20 items, covering pervasive affect, physiological equivalents or concomitants, and psychological concomitants. Covers current functioning.

Practicality

  • Range: Adult
  • Time: Few mins
  • Training: Minimal
  • Application: Mental health populations; clinical research

Reliability

Nil

Validity

  • Content: Not acceptable
  • Construct: Acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

Sensitive to clinical change

Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)A

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Reference

Radloff 1977

Description

  • Type: Self-report; feelings over past week and latency-rated on a scale of 0–3 (frequency of occurrence)
  • Content: 20 items (can be reduced to 19); 6 major symptom areas—depressed mood, feelings of guilt/worthlessness, senses of helplessness/hopelessness, psychomotor retardation, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance. Other versions: Short and children's version.

Practicality

  • Range: Adult (children's version also available)
  • Application: Mental health in adults and adolescents
  • Use: Screening general population

Reliability

  • Internal: Acceptable (better in older children and adolescents)
  • Test-retest: Acceptable

Validity

  • Content: Acceptable
  • Construct: Acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

Sensitive to clinical change
  • Cultural norms: Yes— mainly used in US; limited use in Europe

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)A and BDI-II

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Reference

BDI - Beck et al. 1961; BDI-II - Beck et al. 1996

Description

  • Type: Self-rated questionnaire; rated on 4-point scale, with behavioural anchors provided
  • Content: 21 symptoms: sadness, pessimism, discouragement, sense of failure, dissatisfaction, guilt, expectation of punishment, self-dislike, self-accusation, suicidal ideation, crying, irritability, social withdrawal, indecisiveness, body-image distortion, work retardation, insomnia, fatigability, anorexia, weight loss, somatic preoccupation, and loss of libido.
  • Timeframe: Covers past week, including day of test administration

Practicality

  • Time: 5–10 mins
  • Training: Nil
  • Application: Mental health & general population
  • Use: Screening—clinical research

Reliability

  • Internal: Highly acceptable
  • Test-retest: Acceptable

Validity

  • Content: Acceptable
  • Construct: Acceptable
  • Criterion: Acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

Sensitive to cultural change
  • Cultural sensitivity: Unknown, but has been translated into several languages

Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)

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Reference

Lovibond & Lovibond 1995

Description

  • Type: A set of 3 self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress. (Also DASS-21, Short Form)
  • Content: The depression scale assesses dysphoria, hopelessness, devaluation of life, self-deprecation, lack of interest/involvement, anhedonia, and inertia. The anxiety scale assesses autonomic arousal, skeletal muscle effects, situational anxiety and subjective experiences of anxious affect. The stress scale assesses difficulty relaxing, nervous arousal, and being easily upset/agitated, irritable/over-reactive, and impatient. Contains long and short form of questionnaire.

Practicality

  • Range: Adolescent–adult
  • Time: Brief
  • Admin: Individual or group.
  • Application: Screening and research; clinical and diagnostic

Reliability

  • Internal: Highly acceptable

Validity

  • Construct: Acceptable
  • Concurrent: Acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

  • Gender norms: Yes— normative data based on males and females 17–69 years old

Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

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Reference

Cox, Holden & Sagovsky 1987

Description

  • Type: Self-report scale to measure the presence of depression
  • Content: 10 items

Practicality

  • Range: Women during the 2nd or 3rd month post-partum
  • Admin: Individual
  • Training: Minimal
  • Application: Clinical and population screening; research

Reliability

  • Internal: Acceptable
  • Test-retest: Acceptable
  • Split-half: Highly acceptable

Validity

  • Content: Highly acceptable
  • Construct: Acceptable
  • Concurrent: Acceptable
  • Predictive: Acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

  • Sensitivity: High
  • Specificity: High
  • Cultural norms: Yes— data for Australia, Europe and USA Also validated for rural populations.

Geriatric Depression Scale

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Reference

Yesavage et al. 1983

Description

  • Type: Self-rated questionnaire; yes/no response format
  • Content: symptoms relating to somatic complaints, cognitive complaints, motivation, future/past orientation, self-image, losses, agitation, obsessive traits and mood. Developed and validated with elderly persons taking into account normal changes in cognitive and physical functioning associated with age.
  • Timeframe: Covers past week.

Practicality

  • Time: 5–10 mins
  • Training: Nil
  • Application: Mental health among elderly
  • Use: Screening and clinical research and practice

Reliability

  • Internal: Highly acceptable
  • Test-retest: Highly acceptable

Validity

  • Content: Acceptable
  • Construct: Acceptable
  • Criterion: Acceptable
  • Sensitivity: High, depending upon cut-off

Norms & sensitivity

Top of page Sensitive to clinical change
  • Specificity: High, depending upon cut-off
  • Cultural sensitivity:Unknown, but has been translated into several languages

Footnotes

A Reviewed by Andrews 1994