Better health and ageing for all Australians

Outcomes and indicators, measurement tools and databases for the national action plan for promotion, prevention and early intervention for mental health 2000

Mental health and psychological wellbeing - adults

Up to Publications

prev pageTOC |next page

Table of contents

Mental Health Inventory (MHI)
Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)
Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)
Diagnostic Interview Scale (DIS)
Symptom Checklist— 90 Revised (SCL-90)
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)
Short Form-36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36)
Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS)
Life Skills Profile (LSP)
Global Assessment Scale (GAS) and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale

Mental Health Inventory (MHI)A

Reference

Viet & Ware, 1983

Description

  • Type: Self-rated questionnaire rated on 6- point scale.
  • Content: 38 items, 6 sub-scales: anxiety, depression, behavioural/emotional control, general positive affect, emotional ties, life satisfaction. Also provides a global mental health index. Other versions: MHI-18, same sub-scales as MHI-38; MHI-5

Practicality

  • Range: Adult
  • Time: 5–30 mins depending upon knowledge of patient; covers past month
  • Application: Mental health & general population surveys

Reliability

  • Internal: Highly acceptable
  • Test-retest: Acceptable

Validity

  • Content: Acceptable
  • Construct: Acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

  • Sensitivity to clinical change: Yes
  • Cultural norms: Yes

Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)

Top of page

Reference

Derogatis & Spencer 1982

Description

  • Type: Self-report measure
  • Content: 53 items rated on a 5-point scale of distress; based on symptom checklist: somatisation, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism; 3 indexes—global severity, positive symptom total, positive symptom distress index

Practicality

  • Time: 8–10 mins. Computer software available
  • Application: Mental health and non-patient (general) population
  • Use: Clinical assessment where minimal time available; screening and treatment evaluation; research

Reliability

  • Internal: Acceptable
  • Test-retest: Acceptable

Validity

  • Content: Highly acceptable
  • Construct: Highly acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

  • Sensitivity to clinical change: Yes

Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)

Top of page

Reference

Robins et al. 1988

Description

  • Type: Structured diagnostic instrument. Self-administered computerised form available.

Practicality

  • Range: 15–65 years
  • Time: Approx 15 mins
  • Application & use: Epidemiological and clinical research

Reliability

  • Internal: Highly acceptable
  • Test-retest: Highly acceptable

Validity

Validated in several cultural settings and countries
  • Concurrent: Acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

  • Cultural use: Yes. Data available for Australian populations
  • Sensitivity: Adequate
  • Specificity: High

Diagnostic Interview Scale (DIS)

Top of page

Reference

Robins et al. 1981

Description

  • Type: Structured lay-administered instrument designed for community studies
  • Content: A number of sub-scales related to psychiatric disorder (DSM-III-R definitions)

Practicality

  • Range: Adult
  • Time: 30-60 minutes
  • Training: Lay-interviewers
  • Application & use: Population screening and monitoring; clinical and research

Reliability

  • Inter-rater: Highly acceptable
  • Test-retest: Highly acceptable

Validity

Validated in a number of cultural settings and countries
  • Concurrent: Acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

  • Cultural use: Yes
  • Specificity: High
  • Sensitivity: Low

Symptom Checklist— 90 Revised (SCL-90)A

Top of page

Reference

Derogatis, Lipman & Covi 1973

Description

  • Type: Self-rated questionnaire rated on 5- point scale of distress. Covers past week
  • Content: 90 items, with 9 primary symptom dimensions: somatisation, obsessive-compulsive, inter-personal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism. 3 indices: global severity index, positive symptom distress index, positive symptom total

Practicality

  • Range: Adolescent and adult
  • Time: 10–20 mins
  • Application: Mental health & primary health
  • Use: Clinical research

Reliability

  • Item: Acceptable
  • Test-retest: Highly acceptable

Validity

  • Construct: Highly acceptable
  • Criterion: Acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

Sensitive to clinical change

General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)

Top of page

Reference

Goldberg, 1972; Goldberg, 1978

Description

  • Type: Self-administered and clinician-rated semi-structured interview; 7-point rating scale with behavioural anchors.
  • Versions: GHQ-60, GHQ-30, GHQ-28, and GHQ-12.
  • Content: 2 major areas: inability to carry out normal functions and appearance of new and distressing phenomena. 4 versions: GHQ-60, GHQ-30, GHQ-28 & GHQ-12. GHQ-28 is intended for studies where more information is needed than provided by a single severity score. It includes 4 scales: somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression.

Practicality

  • Range: Adolescent to adult
  • Admin:
    • GHQ-60, 6–8 mins;
    • GHQ- 30 & 28, 3–4 mins
  • Training: Minimal; not restricted to psychologists
  • Application: Mental health; clinical research survey

Reliability

  • Internal: Highly acceptable
  • Test-retest: Acceptable

Validity

  • Content: Highly acceptable
  • Construct: Highly acceptable
  • Criterion: Acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

Sensitive to clinical change
  • Cultural sensitivity: Yes
  • Cultural norms: Yes. Data available for Australian populations

Short Form-36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36)A

Top of page

Reference

Ware et al. 1993

Description

  • Type: Self-administered. 2 versions: one covers past 4 weeks, other covers past week. Brief accompanying version: depression screener based on Rand items (Short Form-36-D)
  • Content: 36 items, 8 dimensions: physical and social functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, role limitations due to emotional problems, mental health, energy/ vitality, pain, general health perception, and single item about perception of health changes over past 12 months.

Practicality

  • Range: Adolescent to adult
  • Time: 5–10 mins
  • Application: Subjective health status of mental and non-clinical populations; clinical and population-based research

Reliability

  • Item: Acceptable
  • Test-retest: Acceptable

Validity

  • Content: Highly acceptable
  • Construct: Highly acceptable
  • Criterion: Acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

  • Cultural sensitivity: Yes—used worldwide; different version used in UK Australian norms— see Stevenson 1995
  • Developmental norms: Yes. Possible problems with clients over 65 years

Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS)A

Top of page

Reference

Wing, Curtis & Beevor 1996

Description

Measures the current health and social functioning of people with a mental illness. Developed as a routine measure of consumer outcomes.
  • Type: Clinician-rated rating scale. Consumer self-report version is also available.
  • Content: 12 items, 5-point severity rating scale. There are four sub-scale scores: behaviour, impairment, symptoms and social skills.

Practicality

  • Range: Adult
  • Time: Approx 5–15 min
  • Admin: Individual
  • Training: Required, training package available
  • Application: Determine effectiveness of mental health services and clinical practice

Reliability

  • Internal: Unacceptable
  • Test-retest: Varies across items from unacceptable to barely acceptable.
  • Inter-rater reliability:Varies across items and sub-scales from unacceptable to acceptable.

Validity

  • Construct: Acceptable
  • Discriminative: Acceptable

Norms & sensitivity

Life Skills Profile (LSP)A

Top of page

Reference

Rosen, Hadzi- Pavlovic & Parker 1989

Description

Intended to measure function and disability in people with severe mental illnesses.
  • Type: Questionnaire completed by service providers, family member or carer.
  • Content: 39 items, 4-point scale. (Also available in 20-item and 16-item scale versions)Five sub-scales include self-care, non-turbulence, social contact, communication and responsibility.

Practicality

  • Range: Adult
  • Time: Approx 15 mins
  • Admin: Individual
  • Training: Designed for use by mental health professional and non-professional raters. No special training.
  • Application & use: Used to assess service delivery and consumer outcomes

Reliability

  • Internal: Range from barely acceptable to acceptable
  • Inter-rater: Barely acceptable (~0.70 for total score; between 0.41 and 0.75 for subscales)
  • Test-retest: Acceptable

Validity

  • Construct: Acceptable
  • Discriminative: 89% accuracy in matching transition between hospital and community

Norms & sensitivity

  • Cultural norms: Yes
  • Sensitive to change: Yes

Global Assessment Scale (GAS) and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale

Top of page

Reference

GAS - Endicott, Spitzer & Fleiss 1976; Global Assessment of Functioning Scale - American Psychiatric Association 1994

Description

A measure of overall severity of psychiatric disturbance.
  • Type: Clinician-rated scale based on all information available to the clinician.
  • Content: One rating required, on a scale ranging from 1 to 100 with 10-point increments.

Practicality

  • Range: Adult
  • Application & use: Summary statement, assess treatment progress, augment other measures

Reliability

  • Internal: Acceptable
  • Inter-rater: Acceptable

Validity

  • Construct: Significant correlation with measures of social and occupational functioning. Variable levels reported across different studies.

Norms & sensitivity

  • Convergent/discriminative: Unacceptable to acceptable. Findings vary across different studies

Footnotes

A Reviewed by Andrews 1994

prev pageTOC |next page