Following are some selected resources relevant to safety and quality issues in mental health. Preference has been provided to accessible resources relevant to the priorities identified in this Plan. The lists are by no means exhaustive.
Website links and phone lines were accurate at the time of printing. Responsibility for the content of the listed resources rests with the respective authors.
Safety and quality in general
Seclusion and restraint
Adverse drug events
Medicines phone help lines
Safety and quality in generalAustralasian Cochrane Centre website
Australian Council for Safety and Quality in Health Care website
Australian Council on Healthcare Standards website
Australian Patient Safety Foundation website
Australian Resource Centre for Healthcare Innovations (ARCHI) website
Doing Less Harm: Improving the safety and quality of care through reporting, analysing and learning from adverse incidents involving NHS patients - Key requirements for health care providers (UK publication).
Guidelines for Determining Benefits for Health Insurance Purposes for Private Patient Hospital-Based Mental Health Care.
Institute for Health Care Improvement.Top of page
International Society for Quality in Health Care Inc.
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, USA.
Key Performance Indicators for Australian Public Mental Health Services. PDF available on the Department of Health website
Australian Mental Health Outcomes and Classification Network (AMHOCN) website
National Centre for Patient Safety, US National Veterans Administration Health website. Includes the Safety Assessment Code (SAC) matrix page (www.patientsafety.gov/matrix.html)
National Mental Health Strategy publications
National Practice Standards for the Mental Health Workforce. PDF available on the Department of Health website Top of page
National Standards for Mental Health Services. PDF available on the Department of Health website
National Triage Scale, ACEM.
Quality Improvement Council website
Report on Incident Management in the NSW Public Health System 2003-2004. PDF available on the NSW Ministry of health website
Safer Health Care (International site).
To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Available on the National Academies Press website
UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) website
United Nations Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and the Improvement of Mental Health Care. Available on the United Nations website
Victorian Department of Human Services, Clinical Risk Management
Victorian Department of Human Services, Sentinel Event Annual Report.
Victorian Department of Human Services - Strategy for safety and quality in public mental health services. PDF available on the Victorian Department of Health website
Victorian Quality Council publications page Top of page
WA Office of Safety and Quality in Health Care (OSQH) website
WA Office of Safety and Quality in Health Care publications include:
Clinical Risk Management
- Clinical Risk Management Guidelines for the WA Health System
- Pocket Guide to Clinical Risk Management
- Desktop Guide to Clinical Risk Management
- Premier's Circular 2004/04 - Whole of Government Complaint Management Strategy
- Department of Health (2005). Complaint Management at the Department of Health
- Department of Health (2005). Complaint Process Flow Chart
- Department of Health (2003). Western Australian Complaints Management Policy: Driving Quality Improvement by Effective Complaints Management
- Metropolitan Hospital and Health Service Annual Complaints Report 2002 – 2003
- Metropolitan Hospital and Health Service Annual Complaints Report 2003-2004
- WA Country Health Service Annual Complaints Report 2003-2004
- Department of Health Annual Complaint Report 2003-2004
- Informed Consent
- Procedure Specific Consent Forms
- Guidelines for Health Practitioners: Patient Consent to Treatment and Disclosure of Material Risks (Oct 2000)
- Questions to Ask Your Doctor About Proposed Tests, Treatment or Procedures (See Appendix A) Top of page
- Credentialing an Introduction
- Incident Reporting and Management Policy
- Statewide Sentinel Events Reporting Policy
- Sentinel Event Report Form
- Clinical Incident and Root Cause Analysis (RCA) Forms
- Qualified Privilege Guidelines
Clinical resourcesAustralasian College for Emergency Medicine and Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (2000) Guidelines for the Management of Deliberate Self Harm in Young People. PDF available on the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine website
Boyce P, Carter G, Penrose-Wall J, Wilhelm K and Goldney R (2003) Summary Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guideline for the management of adult deliberate self-harm (2003),
Australasian Psychiatry, Volume 11, No. 2, June 2003
Clinical Governance, Western Australia
Documents on this site include:
- Introduction to Clinical Governance: A Background paper
- Clinical Governance: Reference by Topics
- Clinical Governance: A Framework of Assurance and Review for Clinical Responsibility and Accountability in Western Australian Health Services
- Clinical Governance Framework
- Western Australian Clinical Governance Guidelines
- Setting Standards for Making Health Care Better: Implementing Clinical Governance in WA Health Services
- Clinical Governance Standard
National Institute of Clinical Studies as of 1 April was incorporated into the National Health and Medical Research Council
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - UK website
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP), Clinical Practice Guidelines page on RANZCP website
Self-harm: The short-term physical and psychological management and secondary prevention of self-harm in primary and secondary care, CG16 Self-harm - NICE guideline
Standards in Care Outcomes in Licensed Psychiatric Hostel for People with a Psychiatric Disability, Office of the Chief Psychiatrist (OCP) Western Australia, May 2003. Available on the OCP website
Victorian Department of Human Services, Chief Psychiatrist's Guidelines page on the Victorian Department of Health website
Violence - The short-term management of disturbed/ violent behaviour in in-patient psychiatric settings and emergency departments, CG25 Violence - NICE guideline - 2005
WA Centre for Clinical Interventions (CCI) website
WA Framework for Clinical Risk Assessment and Management of Harm Available on the WA Health website Top of page
Suicide preventionAuseinet - Australian Network for Promotion, Prevention & Early Intervention for Mental Health website
Boyce P, Carter G, Penrose-Wall J, Wilhelm K and Goldney R (2003) Summary Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guideline for the management of adult deliberate self-harm (2003), Australasian Psychiatry, Volume 11, No. 2, June 2003
Community Life-Building Community Capacity for Suicide Prevention
National Suicide Prevention Strategy. PDF available on the Department of Health website
NSW Mental Health Sentinel Events Review Committee, Tracking Tragedy: A systemic look at suicides and homicides amongst mental health patients, First Report of the Committee, December 2003. PDF available on the NSW Ministry of Health website
NSW Government Response to the Tracking Tragedy Report. PDF available on the NSW Ministry of Health website
NSW Mental Health Sentinel Events Review Committee Tracking Tragedy 2004: A systemic look at homicide by mental health patients and suicide death of patients recently discharged from mental health inpatient units, Second Report of the Committee, March 2005. PDF available on the NSW Ministry of Health website
Rebecca Slinn, Amanda King, Jonathon Evans A national survey of the hospital services for the management of adult deliberate self-harm, Psychiatric Bulletin (2001) 25, 53-55.
Royal College of Psychiatrists, London The General Hospital Management of Adult Deliberate Self-Harm: A Consensus Statement on Standards for Service Provision Council Report, CR32 June 1994. PDF available on the Royal College of Psychiatrists website
Self-harm: The short-term physical and psychological management and secondary prevention of self-harm in primary and secondary care, CG16 Self-harm - NICE guideline. PDF available on the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence website
WA Framework for Clinical Risk Assessment and Management of Harm. Available on the WA Health website Top of page
Seclusion and restraintAmerican Nursing Association Reduction of Patient Restraint and Seclusion in Health Care Settings: Position Statement, October 17, 2001.
American Psychiatric Association American Psychiatric Nurses Association, National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems. Learning from Each Other, Success Stories and Ideas for Reducing Restraint/ Seclusion in Behavioural Health, (2003).
American Hospital Association Guiding Principles on Restraint and Seclusion for Behavioral Health Services, 1999. Available on the National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems
Bluebird, G (2004) Redefining Consumer Roles: Changing Culture and Practice in Mental Health Care Settings, Journal of psychosocial nursing, Vol. 42, No.9, September 2004, pp46-53.
Bower F L, McCullough C S and Timmons M E (2003) 'A synthesis of what we know about the use of physical restraints and seclusion with patients in psychiatric and acute care settings: 2003 update', The Online Journal of Knowledge Synthesis for Nursing, Vol. 10, Document No. 1
Broadstock M The Efffectiveness and Safety of Drug Treatment for Urgent Sedation in Psychiatric Emergencies: A critical appraisal of the literature. NZHTA Report 2001. PDF available on the University of Otago website
Cannon M E, Sprivulis P, and McCarthy J (2001) Restraint practices in Australasian emergency departments, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 2001; 35:464-467.
Champagne T & Stromberg N, Sensory Approaches in Inpatient Psychiatric Settings: Innovative Alternatives to Seclusion and Restraint, Journal of psychosocial nursing, Vol. 42, No.9, September 2004, pp35-44.
Day, P What evidence exists about the safety of physical restraint when used by law enforcement and medical staff to control individuals with acute behavioural disturbance? New Zealand Health Technology Assessment (NZHTA) September 2002 Volume 1 Number 3. PDF available on the University of Otago website
Emergency Demand Policy - P6-02, Restraint and Seclusion in Health Units (Including Mental Health Situations), South Australian Department of Human Services 2002. Accessed via the SA Health website
Huckshorn KA, Reducing Seclusion and Restraint Use in Mental Health Settings: Core Strategies for Prevention, Journal of psychosocial nursing, Vol. 42, No.9, September 2004, pp22-33.
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organisations USA, American Sentinel Event Alert Preventing Restraint Deaths, Issue 8, November 18, 1998.
Michael S Pollanen, PhD; David A. Chiasson, MD, Unexpected death related to restraint for excited delirium: a retrospective study of deaths in policy custody and in the community, Canadian Medical Association Journal 158:1603-7, 1998. Available on the National Center for Biotechnology Information website Top of page
National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) Policy Research Institute, Seclusion and Restraints Task Force Report, May 2003. PDF available on the National Alliance on Mental Illness website
Nurses Board of Western Australia, Guidelines for the use of restraint in Western Australia, August 2002.
Nursing Board of Tasmania Standards for the use of restraint as a nursing intervention (website no longer exists)
Sailas E, Fenton M Seclusion and restraint for people with serious mental illnesses, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001163. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001163.
Standards (includes standards related to use of restraint and seclusion). Available on the Joint Commission website
US Health Care Financing Administration rules on seclusion and restraint. July 11, 1999
US National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Position statement on seclusion and restraint, (1999). PDF available on the NASMHPD website
US National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Position statement on services and supports to trauma survivors, (2005).
Victorian Department of Human Services Chief Psychiatrist's Guidelines - Seclusion.
Victorian Department of Human Services Chief Psychiatrist's Guidelines - Mechanical Restraint.. PDF available on the Victorian Department of Health website
WA Mental Health Act (1996) Conditions under which seclusion is undertaken in Western Australia.
WA Mental Health Act (1996): Regulations on the authorisation, observation and recording of seclusion in Western Australia.
Wanda K Mohr, Phd, Rn, FAAN, Theodore A Petti, MD, MPH, Brian D Mohr, MD, Review Paper: Adverse Effects Associated with Physical Restraint, The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, June 2003. Top of page
Adverse drug eventsADRAC's, Australian Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin. In 2010, ADRAC was replaced by the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Medicines (ACSOM)
Australian Prescriber newsletter website
Better Health Channel, Consumer Medicines Guide page available on the Better Health Channel
Clinical guidance on the use of antidepressant medication in children and adolescents. Joint statement about use of SSRIs in the treatment of psychiatric and developmental disorders in children and adolescents. Available on the RANZCP website
Consumer Medicine Information (CMI).
What is CMI? (brochure)
Grasso B C, Rothschild J M, Genest R, Bates D W (2003) 'What do we know about medication errors in inpatient psychiatry?', Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Safety, Vol. 29, No 8, August 2003.
MedicinesTalk - produced by consumers, for consumers to encourage and promote Quality Use of Medicines (QUM). Available on the NPS Medicine Wise website
Medication Safety Breakthrough Collaborative
MedWatch: The United States Food and Drug Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program page
Brochure on Medimate. PDF available on the NPS Medicine Wise website
National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, NASMHPD Medical Directors' Technical Report on Psychiatric Polypharmacy, NASMHPD, September 2001. Top of page
National Medicines Policy, Policy on Quality Use of Medicines
National Prescribing Service Medicine Wise website
National Prescribing Service - Radar (Rational Assessment of Drugs & Research) page on the National Prescribing Service Medicine Wise website
Quality Use of Medicines (QUM) Map website
RANZCP Position Statement on the Safe Use of Clozapine. Available in the EPA Handbook on the RANZCP website
Victorian Mental Health Branch of the Department of Human Services. Brochures on psychotropic medication.
Western Australian Medication Notifications
Western Australian Medication Review
Western Australian Psychotropic Drug Committee (WAPDC) website
Guidelines and Information available on the above site:
Antidepressants (January 2005)
Antidepressants - Therapeutic algorithm Part 1
Antidepressants - Therapeutic algorithm Part 2
Includes sections on:
- Guidelines for the drug treatment of depression
- Algorithm for pharmacotherapy of depression
- Clinical conditions influencing selection of antidepressants
- Switching antidepressant agents
- Adverse effects that influence selection of antidepressants
- Clinically relevant drug interactions with newer antidepressants
- Printed copies are also available by contacting WATAG.
Includes Therapeutic Algorithms for:
- Early Episodes Top of page
- Relapse and Exacerbation
- Acute Arousal
- Antipsychotic Induced Cardiac Arrhythmia
- Key Points for Antipsychotic therapy in clinical practice
- Guidelines for the use of psychotropic drugs
- Prescription and supply of risperidone long acting depot injection
- Risk of hyperglycaemia and diabetes mellitus associated with use of antipsychotic drugs
- Use of SSRI and SNRI antidepressants in children and adolescents
- Caution required with olanzapine intramuscular
- Olanzapine intramuscular injection
- New Anticonvulsants as Mood Stabilisers
- Metabolic disturbances with antipsychotics
- Lithium revisited - frequently asked questions
- Clozapine & gastrointestinal adverse effects
- Atomoxetine - how useful for ADHD?
- Clozapine augmentation
- Aripiprazole - a new class of antipsychotic
- Lithium induced hypothyroidism. When to treat
- Risperdal Consta
- Combining antidepressants
- Reboxetine - a'NaRI'
- Profile of amisulpride
Medicines phone help linesNational Prescribing Service:
- Medicines Line page – 1300 888 763. Available on the NPS Medicine Wise website
- Therapeutic Advice and Information Service (TAIS) - 1300 138 677
TAIS online enquiry form for health professionals
Safe transportEmergency Demand Policy P7-02 Emergency Transport of Mental Health Consumers from Country Locations, South Australian Department of Human Services 2002. PDF available on the SA Health website
Police Protocol between the Western Australian Police Service and Mental Health Services of the Health Department of Western Australia. PDF available on the Office of the Chief Psychiatrist (OCP) website
Towards a national approach to information sharing in mental health crisis situations (2000).
Victorian Department of Human Services, Protocol between Victorian Police and the Department of Human Services Mental Health Branch July 2004. PDF available on the Victorian Department of Health website
Victorian Department of Human Services, Ambulance transport of people with a mental illness, (2002). PDF available on the Victorian Department of Health website