From the Australian Demographic Statistic report,145, 150 the standardised annual death rates among Australians over time is shown below (see the figure annual background death rates).

The annual background death rate is around 0.6-0.7%. From the D:A:D study,151 the CVD, liver disease, renal or non-AIDS related death rate was estimated to be 0.5 (0.488-0.59%) per year. The illicit drug use expert group conducted a systematic review of mortality rates among IDUs152 and reported that Australia had the lowest mortality rate of any world region, where data were available, and their mortality rate estimate was 0.86% (0.83-0.89%) per year.152 The Victorian Injecting Cohort Study (VICS) estimated the overall annual mortality rate among IDUs as 0.83% (0.56-1.21%).133 This includes drug overdose mortality and additional drug-related mortality rates. Therefore, we assume a range of 0.86% (0.56-1.21%) per year, to cover all possible uncertainty. Several longitudinal studies also estimated the rates of mortality of patients who commence opioid maintenance treatment.153, 154 The overall mortality rate among those patients was 0.88% among patients who receive the treatment with drug-overdose mortality rate of 0.35% and AIDS-related mortality rate of 0.059%. Therefore, we assume 0.5-0.7% for an annual background death rate.

Annual background death rates (%) (1999-2007)

Text equivalent below for Annual background death rates  (%) (1999-2007)

Text version of annual background death rates (%) (1999-2007)

Figures in this description are approximate as they have been read from the graph.

Annual background death rates (%):