Although almost all of the evidence relating to law enforcement and VSM is descriptive, it is possible to suggest a number of pre-conditions for effective policing of VSM, some of which are currently being addressed more than others. The pre-conditions are:
- legislation creating appropriate and adequate police powers, with associated guidelines and protocols;
- an adequate police presence in VSM-affected areas;
- trained and supported community-based agencies, including night patrols;
- places of safety other than police cells;
- adequate referral options;
- sentencing options; and
- clearly articulated linkages with health and welfare sectors, in which both of the latter also play appropriate roles.