The availability and subsequent use of psychostimulants, particularly amphetamines and methamphetamine, is prevalent in Australia and ecstasy is commonly used by youth. The use of cocaine, while not as widespread as the use of other psychostimulants, is nonetheless a considerable concern due to its impact on the physical and mental health of problematic users. Use of ATS is more common among specific groups such as young people and IDUs and psychostimulants appear to be an integral part of the 'dance party scene' in this country and internationally. The increasing availability of more potent forms of psychostimulants such as methamphetamine and the increasing trend towards injection has corresponded with an increase in treatment demand and preliminary reports of additional demands for emergency services in some locations. Despite this, we still have no clear picture of the natural history of methamphetamine use among the general population or specific subgroups such as pregnant women, the Indigenous community and those in rural and remote areas. Nor can we estimate accurately the current number of dependent users to inform the planning and coordination of responsive treatment services. As indicated in Chapter 13: Future Research Directions, a considerable amount of research is required to shed light on this issue for the Australian context.