Review of methadone treatment in Australia

Appendix A: references

Page last updated: October 1995

  1. Dole VP, Nyswander M. A medical treatment for diacetylmorphine (heroin) addiction: A clinical trial with methadone hydrochloride. Journal of the American Medical Association 1965;193:80-84.

  2. Dole VP, Nyswander M. Heroin addiction : A metabolic disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 1967;120:19-24.

  3. Jaffe JH. Drug addiction and drug abuse. In: Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, eds. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon Press, 1990:522-573.

  4. Jaffe JH, Martin WR. Opioid analgesics and antagonists. In: Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, eds. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon Press, 1990:485-521.

  5. Dole VP. Implications of methadone maintenance for theories of narcotic addiction. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 1988;260:3025-3029.

  6. Dole VP, Nyswander ME, Kreek MJ. Narcotic blockade. Archives of Internal Medicine 1966;118:304-309.

  7. Kreek MJ. Medical safety and side effects of methadone in tolerant individuals. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 1973;223:665-8.

  8. Newman RG. What's so special about methadone maintenance. Drug and Alcohol Review 1991;10:225-232.

  9. Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Choopanya K, Vanichseni S, Ward TP. International epidemiology of HIV and AIDS among injecting drug users. AIDS 1992;6:1053-1068.

  10. Darke S, Ward J, Zador D, Swift G. A scale for estimating the health status of opioid users. British Journal of Addiction 1991;86:1317-1322.

  11. Holman CDJ, Armstrong BK, Arias LN, et al. The quantification of drug caused morbidity and mortality in Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Community Services and Health, 1988.

  12. Cooper JR, Altman F, Brown BS, Czechowicz D, ed. Research on the treatment of narcotic addiction: State of the art. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1983.

  13. Hargreaves WA. Methadone dosage and duration for maintenance treatment. In: Cooper JR, Altman F, Brown BS, Czechowicz D, eds. Research on the treatment of narcotic addiction: State of the art. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1983:19-79.

  14. Gerstein DR, Harwood HJ, ed. Treating drug problems. Volume 1. A study of the evolution, effectiveness, and financing of public and private drug treatment systems. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990:332. (vol 1).

  15. Ward J, Mattick RP, Hall W. Key issues in methadone maintenance treatment. Sydney: New South Wales University Press, 1992: 320.Top of page

  16. Mattick RP, Hall W, ed. A treatment outline for approaches to opioid dependence: The quality assurance in the treatment of drug dependence project. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1993:162. (National Drug Strategy Monograph Series; vol 21).

  17. Dole VP, Robinson JW, Orraca J, Towns E, Searcy P, Caine E. Methadone treatment of randomly selected criminal addicts. New England Journal of Medicine 1969;280:1372-1375.

  18. Yancovitz SR, Des Jarlais DC, Peyser NP, et al. A randomised trial of an interim methadone maintenance clinic. American Journal of Public Health 1991;81:1185-1191.

  19. Gunne L-M, Grönbladh L. The Swedish methadone maintenance program: A controlled study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1981;7:249-256.

  20. Newman RG, Whitehill WB. Double-blind comparison of methadone and placebo maintenance treatments of narcotic addicts in Hong Kong. Lancet 1979;8 September:485-488.

  21. Strain EC, Stitzer ML, Liebson IA, Bigelow GE. Dose-response effects of methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Annals of Internal Medicine 1993;119:23-27.

  22. Strain EC, Stitzer ML, Liebson IA, Bigelow GE. Methadone dose and treatment outcome. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1993;33:105-117.

  23. Vanichseni S, Wongsuwan B, Staff of the BMA Narcotics Clinic No. 6, Choopanya K, Wongpanich K. A controlled trial of methadone maintenance in a population of intravenous drug users in Bangkok: Implications for prevention of HIV. International Journal of the Addictions 1991;26:1313-1320.

  24. Gearing FR, Schweitzer MD. An epidemiologic evaluation of long-term methadone maintenance treatment for heroin addiction. American Journal of Epidemiology 1974;100:101-112.

  25. Ball JC, Ross A. The effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment: Patients, programs, services, and outcome. Vienna: Springer-Verlag, 1991.

  26. General Accounting Office. Methadone maintenance: Some treatment programs are not effective; Greater federal oversight needed. Washington, DC.: General Accounting Office, 1990.

  27. Selwyn PA, Feiner C, Cox CP, Lipshutz C, Cohen RL. Knowledge about AIDS and high-risk behavior among intravenous drug users in New York City. AIDS 1987;1:247-254.

  28. Longshore D, Hsieh S, Danila B, Anglin MD. Methadone maintenance and needle/syringe sharing. International Journal of the Addictions 1993;28:983-996.

  29. Haastrup S, Jepsen PW. Seven year follow-up of 300 young drug abusers. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia 1984;70:503-509.

  30. Joe JW, Simpson DD. Mortality rates among opioid addicts in a longitudinal study. American Journal of Public Health 1987;77:347-348.

  31. Hser Y, Anglin MD, Powers K. A 24-year follow-up of California narcotics addicts. Archives of General Psychiatry 1993;50:577-584.

  32. Perucci CA, Davoli M, Rapiti E, Abeni DD, Forastiere F. Mortality of intravenous drug users in Rome: A cohort study. American Journal of Public Health 1991;81:1307-1310.

  33. Perucci CA, Forastiere F, Rapiti E, Davoli M, Abeni DD. The impact of intravenous drug use on mortality of young adults in Rome, Italy. British Journal of Addiction 1992;87:1637-1641.

  34. Grönbladh L, Öhlund LS, Gunne LM. Mortality in heroin addiction: Impact of methadone treatment. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia 1990;82:223-227.Top of page

  35. Davoli M, Perucci CA, Forastiere F, et al. Risk factors for overdose mortality: A case-control study within a cohort of intravenous drug users. International Journal of Epidemiology 1993;22:273-277.

  36. Caplehorn JRM, Dalton MSYN, Cluff MC, Petrenas AM. Retention in methadone maintenance and heroin addicts' risk of death. Addiction 1994;89:203-207.

  37. Strang J, Farrell M. Hepatitis. London: Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence, 1991: 19.

  38. Abdul-Quader AS, Friedman SR, Des Jarlais D, Marmor MM, Maslansky R, Bartelme S. Methadone maintenance and behavior by intravenous drug users that can transmit HIV. Contemporary Drug Problems 1987;14:425-434.

  39. Blix O, Grönbladh L. AIDS and IV heroin addicts: The preventive effect of methadone maintenance in Sweden. Paper presented to Fourth International Conference on AIDS,. Stockholm, Sweden, 1988.

  40. Schoenbaum EE, Hartel D, Selwyn PA, et al. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection in intravenous drug users. New England Journal of Medicine 1989;321:874-879.

  41. Novick DM, Joseph H, Croxson TS, et al. Absence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus in long-term, socially rehabilitated methadone maintenance patients. Archives of Internal Medicine 1990;150:97-99.

  42. Blix O, Gronbladh L. The impact of methadone maintenance on the spread of HIV among IV drug users in Sweden. In: Loimer N, Schmid R, Springer A, eds. Drug addiction and AIDS. Vienna: Springer-Verlag, 1991:200-205.

  43. Marmor M, Des Jarlais DC, Cohen H, et al. Risk factors for infection human immunodeficiency virus among intravenous drug abusers in New York City. AIDS 1987;1:39-44.

  44. Chaisson RE, Bacchetti P, Osmond D, Brodie B, Sande MA, Moss AR. Cocaine use and HIV infection in intravenous drug users in San Francisco. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 1989;261:561-565.

  45. Meandzija B, O'Connor PG, Fitzgerald B, Rounsaville BJ, Kosten TR. HIV infection and cocaine use in methadone maintained and untreated intravenous drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1994;36:109-113.

  46. Ward J, Darke S, Hall W, Mattick R. Methadone maintenance and the human immunodeficiency virus: Current issues in treatment and research. British Journal of Addiction 1992;87:447-453.

  47. Des Jarlais DC. The first and second decades of AIDS among injecting drug users. British Journal of Addiction 1992;87:347-353.

  48. Bell J, Seres V, Bowron P, Lewis J, Batey R. The use of serum methadone levels in patients receiving methadone maintenance. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1988;43:623-629.

  49. Bell J, Bowron P, Lewis J, Batey R. Serum levels of methadone in maintenance clients who persist in illicit drug use. British Journal of Addiction 1990;85:1599-1602.

  50. Caplehorn JRM, Bell J. Methadone dosage and retention of patients in maintenance treatment. Medical Journal of Australia 1991;154:195-199.

  51. Caplehorn JRM, Bell J, Klein DG, Gebski VJ. Methadone dose and heroin use during maintenance treatment. Addiction 1993;88:119-124.

  52. Caplehorn JRM, Bell J. Correction of error: Methadone dosage and retention of patients in maintenance treatment [Letter to the editor]. Medical Journal of Australia 1993;159:640.Top of page

  53. Ward J. Methadone doses: adequate and otherwise. Comments on Wolff and Hay's "Plasma methadone monitoring with methadone maintenance treatment". Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1994;36:73-75.

  54. Brewer C. Intravenous methadone maintenance: A British response to persistent opiate injectors. In: Loimer N, Schmid R, Springer A, eds. Drug addiction and AIDS. Vienna: Springer-Verlag, 1991:187-199.

  55. Berry GJ. Dose-related responses to methadone, including placebo therapy. Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Methadone Treatment. New York: National Association for the Prevention of Addiction to Narcotics, 1972:409-410.

  56. Goldstein A, Judson B. Efficacy and side effects of three widely different methadone doses. Proceedings of the fifth National Conference on Methadone Treatment. New York: National Association for the Prevention of Addiction to Narcotics (NAPAN), 1973.

  57. Goldstein A. Blind dosage comparisons and other studies in a large methadone program. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 1971;4:177-181.

  58. Goldstein A. Blind comparison of once-daily and twice daily dosage schedules in a methadone program. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1972;13:59-63.

  59. Johnson RE, Jaffe JH, Fudala PJ. A controlled trial of buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 1992;267(20):2750-2755.

  60. Ling W, Charuvastra C, Kaim SC, Klett CJ. Methadyl acetate and methadone as maintenance treatments for heroin addicts. Archives of General Psychiatry 1976;33:709-720.

  61. Goldstein A, Hansteen RW, Horns WH. Control of methadone dosage by patients. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 1975;234:734-737.

  62. Havassy B, Hargreaves WA. Self-regulation of dose in methadone maintenance with contingent privileges. Addictive Behaviors 1979;4:31-38.

  63. Havassy B, Hargreaves WA. Allowing methadone clients control over dosage: A 48-week controlled trial. Addictive Behaviors 1981;6:283-288.

  64. Inciardi JA. Methadone diversion: Experiences and issues. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1977.

  65. Ball JC. The similarity of crime rates among male heroin addicts in New York City, Philadelphia and Baltimore. Journal of Drug Issues 1991;21:413-427.

  66. Rosenbaum M, Irwin J, Murphy S. De facto destabilization as policy: The impact of short-term methadone maintenance. Contemporary Drug Problems 1988;15:491-517.

  67. McGlothlin WH, Anglin MD. Shutting off methadone: Costs and benefits. Archives of General Psychiatry 1981;38:885-892.

  68. Vaillant GE. A 20 year follow-up of New York narcotic addicts. Archives of General Psychiatry 1973;29:237-241.

  69. Vaillant GE. What can long-term follow-up teach us about relapse and prevention of relapse in addiction? British Journal of Addiction 1988;83:1147-1157.

  70. Dole VP, Joseph HJ. Long-term outcome of patients treated with methadone maintenance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1978;311:181-189.

  71. Cushman P. Detoxification after methadone treatment. In: Lowinson JH, Ruiz P, eds. Substance Abuse: Clinical problems and perspectives. Baltimore, MD: Williams Wilkins, 1981:389-395.Top of page

  72. Cushman P. Detoxification after methadone maintenance treatment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1981;362:217-230.

  73. Hubbard RL, Marsden ME, Rachal JV, Harwood HJ, Cavanagh ER, Ginzburg HM. Drug abuse treatment: A national study of effectiveness. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.

  74. McGlothlin WH, Anglin MD. Long-term follow-up of clients of high- and low-dose methadone programs. Archives of General Psychiatry 1981;38:1055-1063.

  75. Simpson DD. The relation of time spent in drug abuse treatment to posttreatment outcome. American Journal of Psychiatry 1979;136:1449-1453.

  76. Simpson DD. Treatment for drug abuse: Follow-up outcomes and length of time spent. Archives of General Psychiatry 1981;38:875-880.

  77. Simpson DD, Sells SB. Effectiveness of treatment for drug abuse: An overview of the DARP research program. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse 1982;2(1):7-29.

  78. Stimmel B, Goldberg J, Cohen M, Rotkopf E. Detoxification from methadone maintenance: Risk factors associated with relapse to narcotic use. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1978;311:173-180.

  79. Joe GW, Simpson DD, Hubbard RL. Treatment predictors of tenure in methadone maintenance. Journal of Substance Abuse 1991;3:73-84.

  80. Condelli WS, Dunteman GH. Exposure to methadone programs and heroin use. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1993;19:65-78.

  81. McLellan AT, Woody GE, Luborsky L, Goehl L. Is the counselor an "active ingredient" in substance abuse rehabilitation? An examination of treatment success among four counselors. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1988;176:423-430.

  82. McLellan AT, Arndt IO, Metzger DS, Woody GE, O'Brien CP. The effects of psychosocial services in substance abuse treatment. Journal of the American Medical Association 1993;269:1953-1959.

  83. Woody GE, McLellan AT, Luborsky L, et al. Severity of psychiatric symptoms as a predictor of benefits from psychotherapy: The Veterans Administration-Penn study. American Journal of Psychiatry 1984;141:1172-1177.

  84. Shoptaw S, Rawson R, Grella C, Anglin D, Hasson A. Effectiveness of integrating enhancements to standard methadone treatment for subjects at high risk for HIV transmission. In Fifty-Sixth Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. Palm Beach, Florida: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1994.

  85. Rounsaville BJ, Weissman MM, Kleber H, Wilber C. Heterogeneity of psychiatric diagnosis in treated opiate addicts. Archives of General Psychiatry 1982;39:161-166.

  86. Woody GE, Luborsky L, McLellan AT, et al. Psychotherapy for opiate addicts. Does it help. Archives of General Psychiatry 1983;40:639-645.

  87. Strain EC, Brooner RK, Bigelow GE. Clustering of multiple substance use and psychiatric diagnoses in opiate addicts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1991;27:127-134.

  88. Strain EC, Stitzer ML, Bigelow GE. Early treatment time course of depressive symptoms in opiate addicts. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1991;179:215-221.

  89. Regier DA, Farmer ME, Rae DS, et al. Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 1990;264:2511-2518.Top of page

  90. McLellan AT, Childress AR, Griffith J, Woody GE. The psychiatrically severe drug abuse patient: Methadone maintenance or therapeutic community. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1984;10:77-95.

  91. Ramer BS, Zaslove MO, Langan J. Is methadone enough? The use of ancillary treatment during methadone maintenance. American Journal of Psychiatry 1971;127:80-84.

  92. Rounsaville BJ, Kosten TR, Weissman MM, Kleber HD. Prognostic significance of psychopathology in treated opiate addicts: A 2.5 year follow-up study. Archives of General Psychiatry 1986;43:739-745.

  93. McAuliffe WE, Ch'ien JMN. Recovery training and self help: A relapse-prevention program for treated opiate addicts. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1986;3:9-20.

  94. McAuliffe WE. A randomized controlled trial of recovery training and self-help for opioid addicts in New England and Hong Kong. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1990;22:197-209.

  95. Mattick RP, Jarvis TJ, ed. An outline for the management of alcohol problems: Quality assurance in the treatment of drug dependence project. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1993:270. (National Drug Strategy Monograph Series; vol 20).

  96. Swan N. Two NIDA-tested heroin treatment medications move toward FDA approval. NIDA Notes 1993;8(1):4-5.

  97. Bickel WK, Stitzer ML, Bigelow GE, Liebson IA, Jasinkski DR, Johnson RE. A clinical trial of buprenorphine: Comparison with methadone in the detoxification of heroin addicts. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1988;43:72-78.

  98. Johnson RE, Cone EJ, Henningfield JE, Fudala PJ. Use of buprenorphine in the treatment of opiate addiction. I. Physiologic and behavioral effects during a rapid dose induction. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1989;46:335-343.

  99. Fudala PJ, Jaffe JH, Dax EM, Johnson RE. Use of buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid addiction. II. Physiologic and behavioral effects of daily and alternate-day administration and abrupt withdrawal. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1990;47:525-534.

  100. Lange WR, Fudala PJ, Dax EM, Johnson RE. Safety and side-effects of buprenorphine in the clinical management of heroin addiction. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1990;26:19-28.

  101. Kosten TR, Morgan C, Kleber HD. Phase II clinical trials of buprenorphine: Detoxification and induction onto naltrexone. In: Blaine JD, eds. NIDA Research Monograph: Buprenorphine An alternative treatment for opioid dependence. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1992:101-119.

  102. Resnick RB, Galanter M, Pycha C, Cohen A, Grandison P, Flood N. Buprenorphine: An alternative to methadone for heroin dependence treatment. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1992;28(1):109-113.

  103. Schottenfeld RS, Pakes J, Ziedonis D, Kosten TR. Buprenorhine: Dose-related effects on cocaine and opioid use in cocaine-abusing opioid dependent humans. Biological Psychiatry 1993;34:66-74.

  104. Kosten TR, Rosen MI, Schottenfeld R, Ziedonis D. Buprenorphine for cocaine and opiate dependence. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1992;28(1):15-19.

  105. Kosten TR, Schottenfeld R, Ziedonis D, Falcioni J. Buprenorphine versus methadone maintenance for opioid dependence. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1993;181(6):358-364.

  106. Amass L, Bickel WK, Higgins ST, Badger GJ. Alternate-day dosing during buprenorphine treatment of opioid dependence. Life Sciences 1994;54(17):1215-1228.

  107. Charuvastra VC, Panell J, Ling W, Ouren J. Follow-up study of subjects on methyl acetate and methadone. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1980;6:273-284.Top of page

  108. Freedman RR, Czertko G. A comparison of thrice weekly LAAM and daily methadone in employed heroin addicts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1981;8:215-222.

  109. Jaffe JH, Schuster CR, Smith BB, Blachley PH. Comparison of acetylmethadol and methadone in the treatment of long-term heroin users. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 1970;211:1834-1836.

  110. Rawson RA, Ling W. Opioid addiction treatment modalities and some guidelines to their optimal use. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1991;23(2):151-63.

  111. Savage C, Karp EG, Curran SF, Hanlon TE, McCabe OL. Methadone/LAAM maintenance: A comparison study. Comprehensive Psychiatry 1976;17:415-424.

  112. Taylor, R. A review of methods for estimating the size of subgroups at risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and development of proposals which could be used to estimate these populations in the field. Department of Public Health, University of Sydney, December 1989.

  113. Larson, A. Estimating the number of heroin users in the ACT. National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Canberra, 1992.

  114. Hartnoll, R., Lewis, R. Mitcheson, M. Bryer, S. Estimating the prevalence of opioid dependence. The Lancet, January 1985, 203-205.

  115. Duque-Portugal, F., Martin, A.J. and Taylor, R. Mark-recapture estimates of injecting drug users in Sydney. Australian Journal of Public Health, 1994, 18, 201-204.

  116. Kehoe, L., Hall, W., and Mant, A. Estimates of the number of injecting drug users in a defined area. Australian Journal of Public Health, 1992, 16, 232-237.

  117. Sandland, R.L. Methods of Estimating the Number of Heroin Users in NSW. Project No. MAN/N83/DAA/1 Sydney: Siromath Pty Ltd.

  118. Sandland, R.L. Estimation of the Number of Heroin Users in NSW Using Police Arrest Data: Development of a Statistical Model. Research Grant Report Series B 86/1 Sydney: NSW Drug and Alcohol Directorate.

  119. Kozel, N.J. and Adams, E.H. Epidemiology of drug abuse: an overview. Science, 1986, 234, 970-974.

  120. National Drug Abuse Data System How many heroin users are there in Australia? Statistical Update Number 5, March 1988.

  121. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (1993). Australia's Health 1992. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1993.

  122. Muir, C. The latest estimate of the number of heroin users in NSW. Proceedings of the Second National Drug Indicators Conference, 1990. (Ed) G. Wardlaw. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1991.

  123. Hall, W., Chen, R. and Evans, B. Clients admitted to "The Buttery", a therapeutic community, 1980-1992. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre Technical Report Number 20 National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, 1993.

  124. Swift, W., Darke S., Hall, W., and Popple, G. Who's Who? A Report on the Characteristics of Clients seen at We Help Ourselves 1985-1991. Technical Report No. 14, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre 1993.

  125. Biernacki, P. Pathways from Heroin Addiction: Recovery Without Treatment. Temple University Press: Philadelphia, 1986.
Top of page