• Abstinence - Refraining from drug use.

  • Ambivalence - Conflicted feelings towards someone or something. Understanding and working with a young person's ambivalence is a key component of the motivational interviewing model.

  • AOD - Alcohol and/or other drugs

  • Brainstorming - A technique that can be used when assisting a young person with problem-solving. A range of ideas are generated by the a young person and the worker which are then more fully explored.

  • Brief intervention - An intervention that takes very little time. Brief interventions are usually conducted in a one-on-one situation.

  • Central nervous system (CNS) - Brain and spinal cord.

  • Depressants - Drugs that slow down the brain and central nervous system.

  • Drug - Within the context of this course, a drug is a substance that produces a psycho-active effect.

  • Drug dependence - Anyone who relies on and regularly seeks out the effects of a drug can be considered to be dependent on that drug to some degree. Drug dependence occurs when a drug becomes central to a person's thoughts, emotions and activities. A dependent person finds it difficult to stop using the drug or even to cut down on the amount used. Dependence has physiological and psychological elements.

  • FRAMES - An acronym standing for Feedback, Responsibility, Advice, Menu, Empathy and Self-efficacy. This framework highlights the key elements of a particular style of brief intervention.

  • Hallucinogens - Drugs that act on the brain to distort perception (i.e. sight, taste, touch, sound, smell).Top of page

  • Harm minimisation - Harm minimisation is the primary principle underpinning the National Drug Strategy and refers to policies and programs aimed at reducing drug-related harm. It encompasses a wide range of approaches including abstinence-oriented strategies. Both legal and illegal drugs are the focus of Australia's harm minimisation strategy. Harm minimisation includes preventing anticipated harm and reducing actual harm.

  • Harm reduction - Harm reduction aims to reduce the impact of drug-related harm on individuals and communities. It includes those strategies designed to reduce the harm associated with drug use without necessarily reducing or stopping use.

  • Intervention - A purposeful activity designed to prevent, reduce or eliminate AOD use at an individual, family or community level.

  • Motivational interviewing - A therapeutic style developed in the AOD field in the early 1980s as an alternative to the more confrontational approach used in some sectors of the treatment field. The aim of motivational interviewing is to build on a young person's own motivation and encourage choices for change.

  • Poly-drug use - The use of more than one psycho-active drug, simultaneously or at different times. The term 'poly-drug user' is often used to distinguish a person with a varied pattern of drug use from someone who uses one kind of drug exclusively.

  • Relapse - A return to drug use after a period of deliberate abstinence or controlled use.

  • Relapse prevention/ management - A variety of strategies used in intervention to increase motivation for maintenance of change, to identify high-risk situations for relapse, and develop skills to both avoid and manage relapses.

  • Resistance - Inter or intrapersonal conflict that can manifest within or between a young person and a worker.

  • Risk-taking - Refers to risks that could be associated with AOD use, apart from the drug use itself. In an assessment, involves identifying factors such as sharing injecting equipment, being intoxicated in dangerous places (e.g. near a railway track), or having unprotected sex while intoxicated.

  • Rolling with resistance - One of the principles of motivational interviewing. Rolling with resistance refers to the idea of going with, rather than against any resistance that may arise when working with young people.

  • Self-efficacy - Refers to a person's sense of self-mastery, that is, the extent to which a person believes he or she has the ability to carry out and achieve a given task and reach the desired goal.

  • Self-motivational statements - One of the key strategies used in motivational interviewing. Key questions are asked with the aim of encouraging change conversation.

  • Stages-of-Change model - A model of change developed within the AOD field in the early 1980s. The model proposes that change is a process and not a one off event.
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