Andrews, J. A., Hops, H., & Duncan, S. C. (1997). Adolescent modeling of parent substance use: The moderating effect of the relationship with the parent. Journal of Family Psychology, 11(3), 259–270.

Angst, J., Vollrath, M., Merikangas, K. R., & Ernst, C. (1990). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in the Zurich Cohort Study of Young Adults. Maser, Jack D, (Ed); Cloninger, DC, US: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

Bangert-Drowns, R. L. (1988). The effects of school-based substance abuse education: A meta-analysis. Journal of Drug Education, 18(3), 243–264.

Barrett, P. M. (1998). Evaluation of cognitive-behavioral group treatments for childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(4), 459–468.

Barrett, P. M., Dadds, M. R., & Rapee, R. M. (1996). Family treatment of childhood anxiety: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 64(2), 333–342.

Barrett, P. M., Duffy, A. L., Dadds, M. R., & Rapee, R. M. (2001). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of anxiety disorders in children: Long-term (6-year) follow-up. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 135–141.

Beardslee, W. R. (1989). The role of self-understanding in resilient individuals: The development of a perspective. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59(2), 266–278.

Beardslee, W. R., Hoke, L., Wheelock, I., Rothberg, P. C., & et al. (1992). Initial findings on preventive intervention for families with parental affective disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(10), 1335–1340.

Beardslee, W. R., & MacMillan, H. L. (1993). Preventive intervention with the children of depressed parents: A case study. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 48, 249–276.

Beardslee, W. R., Salt, P., Porterfield, K., Rothberg, P. C., & et al. (1993). Comparison of preventive interventions for families with parental affective disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(2), 254–263.

Bernstein, G. A., Borchardt, C. M., & Perwien, A. R. (1996). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(9), 1110–1119.

Bibb, J. L., & Chambless, D. L. (1986). Alcohol use and abuse among diagnosed agoraphobics. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 24(1), 49–58.

Botvin, G. J. (1999). Adolescent drug abuse prevention: Current findings and future directions. In M. D. Glantz & C. R. Hartel (Eds.), Drug Abuse: Origins and Interventions (pp. 285–308).Washington: American Psychological Association.

Botvin, G. J. (2000). Preventing drug abuse in schools: Social and competence enhancement approaches targeting individual-level etiologic factors. Addictive Behaviors, 25(6), 887–897.Top of page

Bruch, M. A. (1989). Familial and developmental antecedents of social phobia: Issues and findings. Clinical Psychology Review, 9(1), 37–47.

Bukstein, O. G. (1995). Adolescent Substance Abuse: Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention. NY: John Wiley.

Caplan, G. (1964). Principles of preventive psychiatry. NY: Basic Books.

Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Hawkins, J. D., & Newcomb, M. D. (1996). Modeling the etiology of adolescent substance use: A test of the social development model. Journal of Drug Issues, 26(2), 429–455.

Chassin, L., Pitts, S. C., DeLucia, C., & Todd, M. (1999). A longitudinal study of children of alcoholics: Predicting young adult substance use disorders, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108(1), 106–119.

Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1999). Psychopathology as risk for adolescent substance use disorders: A developmental psychopathology perspective. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28(3), 355–365.

Clarke, G. N., Hawkins, W., Murphy, M., Sheeber, L. B., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (1995).Targeted prevention of unipolar depressive disorder in an at-risk sample of high school adolescents: A randomized trial of group cognitive intervention. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(3), 312–321.

Cobham, V. E., Dadds, M. R., & Spence, S. H. (1998). The role of parental anxiety in the treatment of childhood anxiety. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 66(6), 893–905.

Coie, J. D., & Jacobs, M. R. (1993). The role of social context in the prevention of conduct disorder. Development & Psychopathology, 5(1–2), 263–275.

Cole, D. A., Peeke, L. G., Martin, J. M., Truglio, R., & Seroczynski, A. D. (1998). A longitudinal look at the relation between depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 451–460.

Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1992). A developmental and clinical model for the prevention of conduct disorder: The FAST Track Program. Development & Psychopathology, 4(4), 509–527.

Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1999a). Initial impact of the fast track prevention trial for conduct problems: I. The high-risk sample. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67(5), 631–647.

Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1999b). Initial impact of the fast track prevention trial for conduct problems: II. Classroom effects. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67(5), 648–657.

Cowen, E. L., Wyman, P. A., & Work, W. C. (1996). Resilience in highly stressed urban children: concepts and findings. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 73(2), 267–284.

Cowen, E. L., Wyman, P. A., Work, W. C., Kim, J.Y., Fagen, D. B., & Magnus, K. B. (1997). Follow-up of young stress-affected and stress-resilient urban children. Development & Psychopathology, 9(3), 565–577.Top of page

Dadds, M. R. (1997). Conduct disorder. In R.T. Ammerman & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of prevention and treatment with children and adolescents (pp. 521–550). NY: John Wiley.

Dadds, M. R., Barrett, P. M., & Cobham, V. E. (1998). Anxiety Disorders. In T. H. Ollendick (Ed.), Comprehensive clinical psychology: Vol. 5: Children and Adolescents: Clinical Formulation and Treatment (pp. 317–341). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science.

Dadds, M. R., Holland, D. E., Laurens, K. R., Mullins, M., Barrett, P. M., & Spence, S. H. (1999). Early intervention and prevention of anxiety disorders in children: Results at 2-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67(1), 145–150.

Dadds, M. R., Spence, S. H., Holland, D. E., Barrett, P. M., & Laurens, K. R. (1997). Prevention and early intervention for anxiety disorders: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 65(4), 627–635.

Dishion, T. J., Andrews, D.W., Kavanagh, K., & Soberman, L. H. (1996). Preventive interventions for high-risk youth: The Adolescent Transitions Program. In R. D. Peters & R. J. McMahon (Eds.), Preventing childhood disorders, substance abuse, and delinquency (Vol. 3, pp. 184–214). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Dodge, K. A. (1993). The future of research on the treatment of conduct disorder. Development & Psychopathology, 5(1–2), 311–319.

Essau, C. A., & Dobson, K. S. (1999). Epidemiology of depressive disorders. In C. A. Essau & F. Petermann (Eds.), Depressive disorders in children and adolescents (Vol. (1999)). Depressive disorders in children and adolescents: Epidemiology. NJ: Jason Aronson.

Fox, N. A., & Calkins, S. D. (1993). Pathways to aggression and social withdrawal: Interactions among temperament, attachment, and regulation. In K. H. Rubin & J. B. Asendorf (Eds.), Social withdrawal, inhibition and shyness in childhood. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gainey, R. R., Catalano, R. F., Haggerty, K. P., & Hoppe, M. J. (1997). Deviance among the children of heroin addicts in treatment: Impact of parents and peers. Deviant Behavior, 18(2), 143–159.

Gensheimer, L. K., Roosa, M.W., & Ayers, T. S. (1990). Children's self-selection into prevention programs: Evaluation of an innovative recruitment strategy for children of alcoholics. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18(5), 707–723.

Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Jaycox, L. H., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1995). Prevention of depressive symptoms in schoolchildren: Two-year follow-up. Psychological Science, 6(6), 343–351.

Glantz, M. D., & Hartel, C. R. (1999). Drug abuse: Origins & interventions. Washington DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Glantz, M. D., Weinberg, N. Z., Miner, L. L., & Colliver, J. D. (1999). The etiology of drug abuse: Mapping the paths. In M. D. Glantz & C. R. Hartel (Eds.), Drug abuse: Origins and interventions (pp. 3–45).Washington: American Psychological Association.

Golly, A. M., Stiller, B., & Walker, H. M. (1998). First Step to Success: Replication and social validation of an early intervention program. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 6(4), 243–250.Top of page

Gorman, D. M. (1996). Etiological theories and the primary prevention of drug use. Journal of Drug Issues, 26(2), 505–520.

Greenberg, M., Zins, J. E., Elias, M. J., & Weissberg, R. P. (in press). School-based prevention: Promoting positive youth development through social and emotional learning. American Psychologist.

Greenberg, M.T., Domitrovich, C., & Bumbarger, B. (2000). Preventing mental disorders in school age children: A review of the effectiveness of prevention programs. Pennsylvania State University: College of Health and Human Development.

Hagnell, O., & Graesbeck, A. (1990). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in the Lundby 25-Year Prospective Study: The pattern of subsequent episodes. In J. D. Maser & C. R. Cloninger (Eds.), Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders (pp. 139–152).Washington: American Psychiatric Press.

Hains, A. A., & Ellmann, S.W. (1994). Stress inoculation training as a preventative intervention for high school youths. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 8(3), 219–232.

Hawkins, J., Catalano, R., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Hill, K. (in press). Preventing adolescent health risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of pediatrics and adolescent medicine.

Hawkins, J., Catalano, R., & Miller, J. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64–105.

Hawkins, J. D., Kosterman, R., Maguin, E., Catalano, R. F., & Arthur, M.W. (1997). Substance use and abuse. In R.T. Ammerman & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of prevention and treatment with children and adolescents (pp. 203–237). NY: John Wiley.

Henggeler, S.W., Melton, G. B., Brondino, M. J., Scherer, D. G., & Hanley, J. H. (1997). Multisystemic therapy with violent and chronic juvenile offenders and their families: The role of treatment fidelity in successful dissemination. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 65(5), 821–833.

Hudley, C., & Graham, S. (1993). An attributional intervention to reduce peer-directed aggression among African-American boys. Child Development, 64(1), 124–138.

Hudley, C., & Graham, S. (1995). School-based interventions for aggressive African- American boys. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 4(3), 185–195.

Jaycox, L. H., Reivich, K. J., Gillham, J., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1994). Prevention of depressive symptoms in school children. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 32(8), 801–816.

Kazdin, A. E. (1993). Adolescent mental health: Prevention and treatment programs. American Psychologist, 48(2), 127–141.

Kazdin, A. E. (1995). Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence (2 ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.

Kazdin, A. E., & Wassell, G. (2000). Therapeutic changes in children, parents, and families resulting from treatment of children with conduct problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(4), 414–420.Top of page

Kendall, P. C. (1994).Treating anxiety disorders in children: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 62(1), 100–110.

Kendall, P. C., Flannery-Schroeder, E., Panichelli-Mindel, S. M., Southam-Gerow, M., et al. (1997). Therapy for youths with anxiety disorders: A second randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 65(3), 366–380.

Kendler, K. S. (1996). Major depression and generalised anxiety disorder. Same genes, (partly) different environments — revisited. British Journal of Psychiatry — Supplement (30), 68–75.

Kessler, R. C. (1995). The National Comorbidity Survey: Preliminary results and future directions. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 5(2), 139–151.

Kessler, R. C., Nelson, C. B., McGonagle, K. A., Edlund, M. J., Frank, R. G., & Leaf, P. J. (1996). The epidemiology of co-occurring addictive and mental disorders: implications for prevention and service utilization. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66(1), 17–31.

Kessler, R. C., & Price, R. H. (1993). Primary prevention of secondary disorders: a proposal and agenda. American Journal of Community Psychology, 21(5), 607–633.

Kilpatrick, D. G., Acierno, R., Saunders, B., Resnick, H. S., Best, C. L., & Schnurr, P. P. (2000). Risk factors for adolescent substance abuse and dependence: Data from a national sample. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 19–30.

Kiselica, M. S., Baker, S. B., Thomas, R. N., & Reedy, S. (1994). Effects of stress inoculation training on anxiety, stress, and academic performance among adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41(3), 335–342.

Kosterman, R., Hawkins, J. D., Spoth, R., Haggerty, K. P., & Zhu, K. (1997). Effects of a preventive parent-training intervention on observed family interactions: Proximal outcomes from preparing for the drug free years. Journal of Community Psychology, 25(4), 337–352.

LaFreniere, P. J., & Capuano, F. (1997). Preventive intervention as means of clarifying direction of effects in socialization: Anxious-withdrawn preschoolers case. Development & Psychopathology, 9(3), 551–564.

Lewinsohn, P. M., Clarke, G. N., Hops, H., & Andrews, J. A. (1990). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for depressed adolescents. Behavior Therapy, 21(4), 385–401.

Lochman, J. E. (1985). Effects of different treatment lengths in cognitive behavioral interventions with aggressive boys. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 16(1), 45–56.

Lochman, J. E. (1992). Cognitive-behavioral intervention with aggressive boys: Three-year follow-up and preventive effects. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 60(3), 426–432.

Lochman, J. E., Coie, J. D., Underwood, M. K., & Terry, R. (1993). Effectiveness of a social relations intervention program for aggressive and nonaggressive, rejected children. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 61(6), 1053–1058.
Top of page
Loeber, R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10(1), 1–41.

Loeber, R., Russo, M. F., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Lahey, B. B. (1994). Internalizing problems and their relation to the development of disruptive behaviors in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4(4), 615–637.

Lonigan, C. J., & Phillips, B. M. (2001).Temperamental influences on the development of anxiety disorders. In M.W. Vasey & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychology of anxiety (pp. 60–91). NY: Oxford University Press.

McCauley, E., Pavlidis, K., & Kendall, K. (2001). Developmental precursors of depression: The child and the social environment. In I. M. Goodyer (Ed.), The depressed child and adolescent (2 ed., pp. 46–78). UK: Cambridge University Press.

McCord, J., Tremblay, R. E., Vitaro, F., & Desmarais-Gervais, L. (1994). Boys' disruptive behaviour, school adjustment, and delinquency: The Montreal prevention experiment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 17(4), 739–752.

Mendlowitz, S. L., Manassis, K., Bradley, S., Scapillato, D., Miezitis, S., & Shaw, B. F. (1999). Cognitive-behavioral group treatments in childhood anxiety disorders: The role of parental involvement. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(10), 1223–1229.

Michaels, M. L., Roosa, M.W., & Gensheimer, L. K. (1992). Family characteristics of children who self-select into a prevention program for children of alcoholics. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20(5), 663–672.

Miller, G. E., & Prinz, R. J. (1990). Enhancement of social learning family interventions for childhood conduct disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2), 291–307.

Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (Eds.). (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC, US: National Academy Press.

Nastasi, B. K., & DeZolt, D. M. (Eds.). (1994). School interventions for children of alcoholics. New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press.

O'Connor,T. G., Caspi, A., DeFries, J. C., & Plomin, R. (2000). Are associations between parental divorce and children's adjustment genetically mediated? An adoption study. Developmental Psychology, 36(4), 429–437.

Ollendick,T. H., & King, N. J. (1994). Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of internalizing problems in children: The role of longitudinal data. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 62(5), 918–927.

Pedro-Carroll, J. L., Alpert-Gillis, L. J., & Cowen, E. L. (1992). An evaluation of the efficacy of a preventive intervention for 4th-6th grade urban children of divorce. Journal of Primary Prevention, 13(2), 115–130.

Pepler, D., King, G., Craig, W., Byrd, B., & Bream, L. (1995). The development and evaluation of a multisystem social skills group training program for aggressive children. Child & Youth Care Forum, 24(5), 297–313.

Pepler, D. J., King, G., & Byrd, W. (1991). A social-cognitively based social skills training program for aggressive children. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Top of page

Perrin, S., & Last, C. G. (1992). Do childhood anxiety measures measure anxiety? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20(6), 567–578.

Prinz, R. J., Blechman, E. A., & Dumas, J. E. (1994). An evaluation of peer coping-skills training for childhood aggression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23(2), 193–203.

Prinz, R. J., & Miller, G. E. (1994). Family-based treatment for childhood antisocial behavior: Experimental influences on dropout and engagement. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 645–650.

Regier, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., Locke, B. Z., Keith, S. J., Judd, L. L., & Goodwin, F. K. (1990). Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264, 2511–2518.

Reid, J. B., Eddy, J. M., Fetrow, R. A., & Stoolmiller, M. (1999). Description and immediate impacts of a preventive intervention for conduct problems. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27(4), 483–517.

Reid, M. C., & Anderson, P. A. (1997). Geriatric substance use disorders. Medical Clinics of North America, 81(4), 999–1016.

Reinherz, H. Z., Giaconia, R. M., Hauf, A. M. C., Wasserman, M. S., & Paradis, A. D. (2000). General and specific childhood risk factors for depression and drug disorders by early adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(2), 223–231.

Roth, J., & Dadds, M. R. (submitted). Reach for resilience: Evaluation of a universal program for the prevention of internalizing problems in young children. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Rubin, K. H., & Burgess, K. B. (2001). Social withdrawal and anxiety. In M.W. Vasey & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 407–434). NY: Oxford University Press.

Sanders, M. R. (1999).Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: Towards an empirically validated multilevel parenting and family support strategy for the prevention of behavior and emotional problems in children. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 2(2), 71–90.

Schinke, S. P., & Tepavac, L. (1995). Substance abuse prevention among elementary school students. Drugs & Society, 8(3–4), 15–27.

Schochet, I. M., Dadds, M. R., Holland, D., Whitefield, K., Harnett, P., & Osgarby, S. M. (in press). Short-term effects of a universal school-based program to prevent adolescent depression: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

Schochet, I. M., Holland, D., & Whitefield, K. (1997). The Griffith Early Intervention Depression Project: Group Leader's Manual. Brisbane: Griffith Early Intervention Project.

Schochet, I. M., & O'Gorman, J. (1995). Ethical issues in research on adolescent depression and suicidal behaviour. Australian Psychologist, 30, 183–187.Top of page

Short, J. L. (1998). Evaluation of a substance abuse prevention and mental health promotion program for children of divorce. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 28(3–4), 139–155.

Shure, M. B. (1997). Interpersonal cognitive problem solving: Primary prevention of early high-risk behaviors in the preschool and primary years. In G.W. Albee & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Primary Prevention Works (pp. 167–188). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.

Silverman, W. K., Kurtines, W. M., Ginsburg, G. S., Weems, C. F., Lumpkin, P.W., & Carmichael, D. H. (1999).Treating anxiety disorders in children with group cognitive-behavioral therapy: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67(6), 995–1003.

Silverman, W. K., Kurtines, W. M., Ginsburg, G. S., Weems, C. F., Rabian, B., & Serafini, L. T. (1999). Contingency management, self-control, and education support in the treatment of childhood phobic disorders: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67(5), 675–687.

Simeonsson, R. J. (1994).Toward an epidemiology of developmental, educational, and social problems of childhood. In R. J. Simeonsson (Ed.), Risk, resilience and prevention: Promoting the well-being of all children (pp. 13–31). Baltimore: P.H. Brookes.

Stuart, J. (1974).Teaching facts about drugs. Pushing or preventing? Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 189–201.

Tierney, J. P., Grossman, J. B., & Resch, N. L. (1995). Making a difference: The impact study of Big Brother/Sister. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.

Tremblay, R. E., Masse, L. C., Pagani, L., & Vitaro, F. (1996). From childhood physical aggression to adolescent maladjustment: The Montreal prevention experiment. In R. Peters & R. J. Mcmahon (Eds.), Preventing childhood disorders, substance abuse, and delinquency (Vol. 3, pp. 268–298). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.

Tremblay, R. E., Pagani-Kurtz, L., Masse, L. C., Vitaro, F., & et al. (1995). A bimodal preventive intervention for disruptive kindergarten boys: Its impact through mid-adolescence. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 63(4), 560–568.

Tremblay, R. E., Vitaro, F., Bertrand, L., LeBlanc, M., Beauchesne, H., Boileau, H., & David, L. (1992). Parent and child training to prevent early onset of delinquency: The Montreal longitudinal-experimental study. In J. McCord & R. E. Tremblay (Eds.) (pp. 117–138). New York: Guilford Press.

Tuma, J. M. (1989). Mental health services for children: The state of the art. American Psychologist, 44, 188–198.

Vitaro, F., & Tremblay, R. E. (1994). Impact of a prevention program on aggressive children's friendships and social adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22(4), 457–475.

Walker, H. M., Kavanagh, K., Stiller, B., Golly, A., Severson, H. H., & Feil, E. G. (1998). First step to success: An early intervention approach for preventing school antisocial behavior. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 6(2), 66–80.

Walker, H. M., Stiller, B., Severson, H. H., Feil, E. G., & Golly, A. (1998). First Step to Success: Intervening at the point of school entry to prevent antisocial behavior patterns. Psychology in the Schools, 35(3), 259–269.

Webster-Stratton, C., & Hammond, M. (1998). Conduct problems and level of social competence in Head Start children: Prevalence, pervasiveness, and associated risk factors. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 1(2), 101–124.Top of page

Weinberg, N. Z., & Glantz, M. D. (1999). Child psychopathology risk factors for drug abuse: Overview. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 290–297.

Werner, E. E. (1993). Risk, resilience, and recovery: Perspectives from the Kauai Longitudinal Study. Development & Psychopathology, 5(4), 503–515.

Windle, M. (1990). A longitudinal study of antisocial behaviors in early adolescence as predictors of late adolescent substance use: Gender and ethnic group differences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99(1), 86–91.

Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., & Kerley, J. H. (1993). The role of children's future expectations in self-esteem functioning and adjustment to life stress: A prospective study of urban at-risk children. Development & Psychopathology, 5(4), 649–661.