High coverage for universal vaccines, but greater vaccination delay, continue to be features for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. There have been some improvements in vaccination timeliness in recent years, but disparities remain between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and other children. This reduces the potential benefits of vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, most importantly for pneumococcal, Hib and rotavirus vaccines in infants. The age cut-offs for rotavirus vaccines present a particular challenge for timely vaccination. Coverage achieved by the 2-dose rotavirus schedule is around 8 percentage points lower in both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and other infants compared to other vaccines, but the disparity between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and other children has not substantially changed. However, the proportion of children who complete the 3-dose schedule is 17 percentage points lower in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children, with 34% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children remaining incompletely immunised or unimmunised.

Coverage for vaccines recommended only for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children (hepatitis A and pneumococcal boosters in some jurisdictions) continues to remain substantially lower than that for universally recommended vaccines. This underlines the importance of immunisation providers establishing the Indigenous status of their clients, so they can offer them the additional vaccines they may require.

However, the absence of any coverage data for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents or for adults since 2004/2005 is a substantial obstacle to implementing and improving programs in these groups.