Vaccine Preventable Diseases in Australia, 2005 to 2007

Appendix 6.4 Changes in vaccination practice in Australia 1992 to 2007* (including the Australian Standard Vaccination Schedule and National Immunisation Program schedule)

Page last updated: 24 December 2010

Table 6.4.1: Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccination practice in Australia, 1992 to 2007

Date
Intervention
1994 Fifth dose of DTPw at 4–5 years of age added to the recommended vaccination schedule (replacing child diphtheria-tetanus vaccine)

Active ADT school vaccination programs commenced in some states for 15–19 year olds
1996 Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa) licensed in Australia
1997 DTPa recommended for fourth and fifth doses of DTP vaccination (due at 18 months and 4–5 years of age)
1999 DTPa recommended for all five childhood DTP doses

Combined DTPa-hepatitis B vaccine approved
2000 Second booster dose of DTPa recommended at 4 years of age instead of 4–5 years

NHMRC recommended 10-yearly booster doses of dT be replaced with a routine booster dT dose at 50 years of age (unless a booster dT dose has been documented within last 10 years)

DTPa-hepB vaccine included on childhood schedule (used in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland and South Australia)

Adult/adolescent formulation (dTpa) available for boosting adolescents and adults against pertussis
2001 Combined DTPa-hepB-IPV and DTPa-hepB-IPV-Hib vaccines approved
2002 Combined DTPa-IPV and DTPa-IPV-Hib vaccines approved
2003 September: Fourth dose of DTPa at 18 months of age no longer recommended. dTpa recommended at 15 years of age, replacing dT
2004 dTpa funded for adolescents replacing the diphtheria-tetanus dose – the eligible age group varied with different jurisdictions

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Table 6.4.2: Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination practice in Australia, 1992 to 2007

Date
Intervention
1992 First Hib vaccines (PRP-D, ProHIBit) licensed in Australia for vaccinating infants aged 18 months to 5 years
1993 Hib vaccine recommended as part of the childhood vaccination schedule for all children born from February 1993

Hib vaccines: HbOC (HibTITER), PRP-T (Act-HIB) and PRP-OMP (PedvaxHIB) licensed for infants aged <18 months

PRP-OMP recommended at 2, 4 and 12 months of age for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and all children in the Northern Territory, HbOC used otherwise
2000 Combined Hib(PRP-OMP)-hepatitis B vaccine approved

PRP-OMP vaccine recommended for all infants (administered separately or in combination with hepatitis B antigen)
2001 Combined DTPa-hepB-IPV-Hib vaccine approved

HbOC (Hib-TITER) vaccine availability ceased
2002 Combined DTPa-IPV-Hib vaccines approved
2005 November: Combined DTPa-hepB-IPV-Hib (PRP-T) vaccines used in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia (for non-Indigenous children) and Tasmania; PRP-OMP containing vaccine(s) continues to be used in other jurisdictions including Indigenous infants in Western Australia

Table 6.4.3: Hepatitis A vaccination practice in Australia, 1992 to 2007

Date
Intervention
1994 Hepatitis A vaccine (formaldehyde inactivated HAV) approved in Australia for at-risk groups, 3 doses recommended
2005 Hepatitis A vaccination (2 doses) recommended and funded for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 12–24 months residing in the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia

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Table 6.4.4: Hepatitis B vaccination practice in Australia, 1992 to 2007

Date
Intervention
1997 Vaccination recommended for adolescents aged 10–16 years (New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania)

Interim recommendation for universal vaccination of infants at birth
1998 School-based programs commenced for 10–16 year olds in Victoria

A ‘catch-up’ campaign was conducted in the Northern Territory for children 6–16 years of age
1999 South Australia commenced Year 8 immunisation program provided by councils

Combined DTPa-hepatitis B vaccine approved
2000 Thiomersal-free paediatric hepatitis B vaccine approved

Combined Hib(PRP-OMP)-hepB vaccine approved

May: Universal infant vaccination included in childhood schedule with a birth dose of monovalent paediatric hepatitis B vaccine, followed by 3 doses as part of a combination vaccine schedule

DTPa-hepB vaccine included on childhood schedule (used in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland and South Australia)

Hib(PRP-OMP)-hepB vaccine included on childhood schedule (used in Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia)

Preadolescent vaccination recommended at 10–13 years of age rather than 10–16 years of age

Hepatitis B booster doses no longer recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council
2001 Combined DTPa-hepB-IPV and DTPa-hepB-IPV-Hib vaccines approved

Table 6.4.5: Human papillomavirus vaccination practice in Australia, 1992 to 2007

Date
Intervention
2007 Funded immunisation against human papillomavirus for all Australian girls aged 12–13 years delivered through a school-based program since April 2007, with a temporary catch-up program through schools or primary care providers for females aged 13–26 years until December 2009

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Table 6.4.6: Influenza vaccination practice in Australia, 1992 to 2007

Date
Intervention
Pre-1992 Annual vaccination recommended for individuals who were at particular risk of complications or death from influenza due to a limited number of specified conditions, including persons >65 years of age and residents of nursing homes and other chronic care facilities
1994 Annual vaccination recommended for individuals aged >65 years and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged >50 years

Annual vaccination recommended to be considered for individuals with specified medical conditions that increased their risk of severe influenza or complications, for residents of nursing homes and other chronic care facilities, and for staff who care for immunocompromised patients and staff of nursing home and other chronic care facilities
1997 Annual vaccination recommended for individuals with specified medical conditions that increased their risk of severe influenza or complications, and for residents of nursing homes and other chronic care facilities

In Victoria, influenza vaccine funded for all adults aged ≥65 years
1999 Funding provided for both the national Older Australian Flu program (for adults aged ≥65 years) and the National Indigenous Pneumococcal and Influenza Immunisation (NIPII) program (for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged ≥50 years and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 15–49 years who had at least one of a range of underlying conditions that increased their risk of influenza or complications)
2000 List of underlying medical conditions and population groups for which annual vaccination was recommended was expanded – additional groups included pregnant women, healthcare workers and travellers under specified conditions
2003 List of underlying medical conditions and population groups for which annual vaccination was recommended was further expanded

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Table 6.4.7: Measles, mumps and rubella vaccination practice in Australia, 1992 to 2007

Date
Intervention
1992 November: NHMRC recommended second dose of MMR vaccine for both sexes to replace schoolgirl rubella vaccination program
1993 November: Childhood vaccination schedule updated to include second dose of MMR vaccine for 10–16 year olds (replacing schoolgirl rubella vaccination)
1994 National MMR vaccination catch-up program for both sexes in Year 6
1998 Recommended age for first dose of MMR vaccine for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the Northern Territory increased to 12 months of age (in line with non-Aboriginal infants)

July: Recommended age for second MMR vaccine dose lowered to 4–5 years

July–December: Implementation of the national Measles Control Campaign (involving mass vaccination of primary school aged children with MMR vaccine)
2000 Recommended age for second MMR dose lowered to 4 years of age not 4–5 years

MMR rather than rubella vaccine recommended for non-immune women of child-bearing age
2001 Young adult (18–30 years) MMR vaccination campaign conducted

Table 6.4.8: Meningococcal C vaccination practice in Australia, 1992 to 2007

Date
Intervention
2001 Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (Meningitec) approved
2002 Meningococcal C conjugate vaccines (NeisVac-C, Menjugate) approved

Funding announced for National Meningococcal C Vaccination Program with meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (MenCCV) funded for all children 1–18 years of age, at 12 months of age, with a catch-up program for older ages
2003 Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine added to childhood vaccination schedule at 12 months of age

National Meningococcal C Vaccination Program commenced January 2003

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Table 6.4.9: Pneumococcal vaccination practice in Australia, 1992 to 2007

Date
Intervention
Pre-1992 Vaccination recommended for individuals with increased risk of pneumococcal disease or complications due to specified underlying medical conditions
1994 Vaccination recommended for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders living in high-risk communities aged >50 years
1997 Vaccination recommended for all persons aged >65 years

Vaccination recommended for all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders aged >50 years
1998 In Victoria, pneumococcal vaccine funded for all adults aged≥65 years and all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders aged ≥50 years
1999 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine funded by the Commonwealth (under the National Indigenous Pneumococcal and Influenza Immunisation program – NIPII) for all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders aged >50 years and those aged 15–50 years with any of the high-risk underlying conditions
2000 Vaccination recommendation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders changed from >50 to ≥50 years

Vaccination recommendation for all persons changed from >65 to ≥65 years

The Northern Territory recommended 23-valent vaccine for all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged ≥15 years

7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine licensed in Australia
2001 Australian Government program for children at highest risk for invasive pneumococcal disease using the conjugate pneumococcal vaccination (all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants; all Australian children with specified underlying predisposing medical conditions; non-Indigenous children residing in central Australia up to the second birthday, as catch-up vaccination)
2003 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine recommended for all infants from 2 months of age at 2, 4 and 6 months of age (but funded only for children with increased risk of disease)

List of high-risk medical conditions for which a child became eligible for the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine was expanded
2005 January: Universal funded infant 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) program replaced the previous targeted childhood program, with a catch-up program for children aged <2 years

Universal 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) for adults aged ≥65 years replaced previous subsidy through the PBS

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Table 6.4.10: Polio vaccination practice in Australia, 1992 to 2007

Date
Intervention
1994 Recommendation for reinforcing dose of OPV to 15-year old adolescents
1998 4-year old OPV booster before starting school commenced (administered along with MMR and DTPa)
2001 Combined DTPa-hepB-IPV and DTPa-hepB-IPV-Hib vaccines approved
2002 Combined DTPa-IPV and DTPa-IPV-Hib vaccines approved

Fifth dose of OPV at 15–17 years of age no longer recommended
2003 IPV recommended to replace OPV at 2, 4 and 6 months and 4 years of age
2005 November: IPV funded to replace OPV, in combination vaccines

Table 6.4.11: Rotavirus vaccination practice in Australia, 1992 to 2007

Date
Intervention
2006 Funded immunisation in the Northern Territory against rotavirus using Rotarix® at 2 and 4 months of age from October 2006
2007 Universal funded immunisation against rotavirus at 2 and 4 months of age (Rotarix®) or at 2, 4 and 6 months of age (Rotateq®) from July 2007

Table 6.4.12: Varicella vaccination practice in Australia, 1992 to 2007

Date
Intervention
2001 Varicella vaccine (Varivax) approved
2003 Varicella vaccine recommended at 18 months of age
2005 Universal funded immunisation against varicella at 18 months of age from November 2005 with a school-based catch-up program for children at 10–12 years of age not previously vaccinated and without a history of varicella infection (no funded catch-up for children 2–10 years of age)

* See also Gidding HF, Burgess MA, Kempe AE. A short history of vaccination and childhood vaccination practices in Australia. Med J Aust 2001;174(1):37–40. Detailed historical tables available at: http://www.ncirs.edu.au/immunisation/index.php

† The National Immunisation Program (NIP) schedule replaced the Australian Standard Vaccination Schedule (ASVS) for children in May 2005.

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