Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Vaccination Coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People, Australia, 2003 to 2006

Appendix A. Summary of notifications in Australia,* for vaccine preventable diseases,† 2003 to 2006, by Indigenous status

Disclaimer: Produced by the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare on behalf of the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing Published as a supplement to the Communicable Diseases Intelligence journal Volume 32, June 2008.

Page last updated: 30 June 2008

Disease
Indigenous status Notifications*
(2003–2006)
n Rate§ Rate ratio
Diphtheria
Indigenous
0
Other
0
Hib disease (invasive)
Indigenous
10
0.6
8.8‡‡
Other
41
0.1
Hepatitis A
Indigenous
162
8.1
4.9‡‡
Other
1,007
1.7
Hepatitis B
Indigenous
56
4.3
3.1‡‡
Other
860
1.4
Measles
Indigenous
9
0.6
1.4
Other
237
0.4
Meningococcal disease
Indigenous
106
5.1
2.6‡‡
Other
1,157
1.9
Mumps
Indigenous
3
0.2
0.2‡‡
Other
529
0.9
Pertussis
Indigenous
439
37.2
0.8
Other
28,611
46.9
Pneumococcal disease
Indigenous
477
41.7
4.6‡‡
Other
5,464
9.0
Poliomyelitis
Indigenous
0
Other
0
Rubella**
Indigenous
1
0.05
0.3
Other
118
0.19
Tetanus††
Indigenous
0
Other
8

*      Notifications (New South Wales, the Northern Territory, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia only) where the date of diagnosis was between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2006.

†     See Results section for case definitions. For diseases not included in Results section, case definitions are listed below.

‡     Influenza not included because of low completeness of Indigenous status field.

§     Rates are per 100,000 population for all ages combined, age-standardised to the Australian Bureau of Statistics Australian population estimates for 2005.

||    Diphtheria notifications: see Appendix D for pre-2004 definition. National definition from January 2004: Isolation of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae or toxigenic C. ulcerans (confirmed case); or Isolation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae or C. ulcerans (toxin production unknown) and one of the following presentations as clinical evidence: pharyngitis and/or laryngitis (with or without membrane); or toxic (cardiac or neurological) symptoms (probable case); or clinical evidence as above and an epidemiological link to a confirmed case (probable case).

¶     Mumps notifications: see Appendix D for pre-2004 definition. National definition from January 2004: Confirmed cases require either laboratory definitive evidence, or laboratory suggestive evidence and clinical evidence, or clinical evidence and an epidemiological link to a laboratory-confirmed case. a) Laboratory definitive evidence: Isolation of mumps virus; or Detection of mumps virus by nucleic acid testing; or IgG seroconversion or a significant increase in antibody level or a fourfold or greater rise in titre to mumps virus in the absence of recent vaccination. b). Laboratory suggestive evidence: Detection of mumps-specific IgM antibody in the absence of recent vaccination. c) Clinical evidence: A clinically compatible illness characterised by swelling of the parotid or salivary glands lasting two days or more without other apparent cause.

**    Rubella notifications: see Appendix D for pre-2004 definition. National definition from January 2004: A confirmed case requires laboratory definitive evidence. A probable case requires clinical evidence and either laboratory suggestive evidence or an epidemiological link to a laboratory-confirmed case. a) Laboratory definitive evidence: Isolation of rubella virus; or Detection of rubella virus by nucleic acid testing; or IgG seroconversion or a significant increase in antibody level or a fourfold or greater rise in titre to rubella virus in the absence of recent rubella vaccination in paired sera tested in parallel; or Detection of rubella-specific IgM antibody in the absence of recent rubella vaccination (must be confirmed in a reference laboratory in pregnant women). b) Laboratory suggestive evidence: In a pregnant patient, the detection of rubella-specific IgM antibody that has not been confirmed in a reference laboratory, in the absence of recent rubella vaccination. c) Clinical evidence: A generalised maculopapular rash and fever, and one or more of: arthralgia/arthritis or lymphadenopathy or conjunctivitis.

††   Tetanus notifications: see Appendix D for pre-2004 definition. National definition from January 2004: Confirmed cases require either laboratory definitive evidence or clinical evidence. a) Laboratory definitive evidence: Isolation of Clostridium tetani from a wound in a compatible clinical setting and prevention of positive tetanospasm in mouse test from such an isolate using specific tetanus antitoxin. b) Clinical evidence: A clinically compatible illness without apparent cause.

‡‡ Shaded cells indicate statistically significant, 95% confidence intervals greater or less than 1 (p<0.5).