Risk factors for eye disease and injury: literature review

2.5 Eye injury

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      Eye injury can occur in a number of circumstances; for example, in the workplace (eg welding), around the home, or while playing sport (eg football, racquet ball) or other recreational activities (eg paintball). Examples of common causes of eye injury include:

      • chemical burns, including alkali, acid or irritants — chemicals entering the eye can cause damage to the cornea, but occasionally can penetrate the internal eye structures of the eye, including the lens
      • corneal abrasions — a scrape or scratch on the cornea
      • hyphema — bleeding between the cornea and iris
      • open globe injury — a full-thickness wound of the outer membrane of the eye involving the sclera or cornea
      • closed globe injury — an injury where there is no full-thickness wound of the eye
      • foreign objects entering the eye — penetrating injuries are caused by an object physically piercing the eye whereas ruptures occur from blunt force or nonpenetrating impact which, through distortion of the globe, results in a full-thickness laceration.
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