Risk factors for eye disease and injury: literature review

Appendix 7 Included references

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      This appendix contains the references selected for inclusion in the review (Section A7.1), the references cited in the main document (Section A7.2), and the references cited in Chapter 6 (‘Areas requiring further research’).

A7.1 Included references

Abraham AG, Condon NG and West Gower E (2006). The new epidemiology of cataract. Ophthalmology Clinics of North America 19(4):415–425. Record number: 449
      Abrahamsson M, Magnusson G and Sjostrand J (1999). Inheritance of strabismus and the gain of using heredity to determine populations at risk of developing strabismus. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 77(6):653–657. Record number: 2354

      Adams GG and Sloper JJ (2003). Update on squint and amblyopia. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96(1):3–6. Record number: 2686

      Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group (2005). Risk factors for the incidence of advanced age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) AREDS report no. 19. Ophthalmology 112(4):533–539. Record number: 725

      Aguinaga Ontoso I, Guillen Grima F, Aguinaga Ontoso E and Fernandez Fernandez LR (1997). Does medical treatment of mild intraocular hypertension prevent glaucoma? European Journal of Epidemiology 13(1):19–23. Record number: 1613

      Al-Bdour M and Al-Latayfeh MM (2004). Risk factors for pterygium in an adult Jordanian population. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 82(1):64–67.

      Aleman TS, Duncan JL, Bieber ML, de Castro E, Marks DA, Gardner LM, Steinberg JD, Cideciyan AV, Maguire MG and Jacobson SG (2001). Macular pigment and lutein supplementation in retinitis pigmentosa and Usher syndrome. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 42(8):1873–1881. Record number: 2737

      Alfaro III DV, Jablon EP, Rodriguez Fontal M, Villalba SJ, Morris RE, Grossman M and Roig-Melo E (2005). Fishing-related ocular trauma. American Journal of Ophthalmology 139(3):488–492. Record number: 1931

      Altan VM (2003). The pharmacology of diabetic complications. Current Medicinal Chemistry 10(15):1317–1327. Record number: 2245

      American Academy of Ophthalmology (2006). Policy statement: frequency of ocular examinations, American Academy of Ophthalmology, San Francisco. Record number: 3412

      Anderson OA, Lee V, Shafi S, Keegan D and Vafidis G (2005). A model for the management of an atypical endophthalmitis outbreak. Eye 19(9):972–980. Record number: 2838

      Andreotti G, Lange JL and Brundage JF (2001). The nature, incidence, and impact of eye injuries among US military personnel: implications for prevention. Archives of Ophthalmology 119(11):1693–1697. Record number: 1563

      Ariturk N, Sahin M, Oge I, Erkan D and Sullu Y (1999). The evaluation of ocular trauma in children between ages 0–12. Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 41(1):43–52. Record number: 771

      Arnarsson A, Sverrisson T, Stefansson E, Sigurdsson H, Sasaki H, Sasaki K and Jonasson F (2006). Risk factors for five-year incident age-related macular degeneration: the Reykjavik Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology 142(3):419–428. Record number: 720

      Ateenyi-Agaba C, Dai M, Le Calvez F, Katongole-Mbidde E, Smet A et al (2004). TP53 mutations in squamous-cell carcinomas of the conjunctiva: evidence for UV-induced mutagenesis. Mutagenesis 19(5):399–401.

      Atchison DA, Pritchard N, White SD and Griffiths AM (2005). Influence of age on peripheral refraction. Vision Research 45(6):715–720. Record number: 2126
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      Attebo K, Mitchell P, Cumming R, Smith W, Jolly N and Sparkes R (1998). Prevalence and causes of amblyopia in an adult population. Ophthalmology 105(1):154–159. Record number: 2463

      Bachmann MO and Nelson SJ (1998). Impact of diabetic retinopathy screening on a British district population: case detection and blindness prevention in an evidence-based model. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 52(1):45–52. Record number: 3049

      Bachmann MO, Eachus J, Hopper CD, Davey Smith G, Propper C, Pearson NJ, Williams S, Tallon D and Frankel S (2003). Socio-economic inequalities in diabetes complications, control, attitudes and health service use: a cross-sectional study. Diabetic Medicine 20(11):921–929. Record number: 2511

      Baker RS, Wilson RM, Flowers Jr CW, Lee DA and Wheeler NC (1999). A population-based survey of hospitalized work-related ocular injury: diagnoses, cause of injury, resource utilization, and hospitalization outcome. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 6(3):159–169. Record number: 1547

      Barr A, Baines PS, Desai P and MacEwen CJ (2000). Ocular sports injuries: the current picture. British Journal of Sports Medicine 34(6):456–458. Record number: 1929

      Bartlett H and Eperjesi F (2003). Age-related macular degeneration and nutritional supplementation: a review of randomised controlled trials. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 23(5):383–399. Record number: 2788

      Bartlett H and Eperjesi F (2004). An ideal ocular nutritional supplement? Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 24(4):339–349. Record number: 2749

      Basti S and Mascai MS (2003). Ocular surface squamous neoplasia: A review. Cornea 22:687–704.

      Bengtsson B and Grodum K (1999). Refractive changes in the elderly. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 77(1):37–39. Record number: 2135

      Berson EL, Rosner B, Sandberg MA, Weigel-DiFranco C, Moser A, Brockhurst RJ, Hayes KC, Johnson CA, Anderson EJ, Gaudio AR, Willett WC and Schaefer EJ (2004). Clinical trial of docosahexaenoic acid in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A treatment. Archives of Ophthalmology 122(9):1297–1305. Record number: 2738

      Bianco M, Vaiano AS, Colella F, Coccimiglio F, Moscetti M, Palmieri V, Focosi F, Zeppilli P and Vinger PF (2005). Ocular complications of boxing. British Journal of Sports Medicine 39(2):70–74. Record number: 1928

      Bihan H, Laurent S, Sass C, Nguyen G, Huot C, Moulin JJ, Guegen R, Le Toumelin P, Le Clesiau H, La Rosa E, Reach G and Cohen R (2005). Association among individual deprivation, glycemic control, and diabetes complications: the EPICES score. Diabetes Care 28(11):2680–2685. Record number: 2512

      Birch EE, Stager D, Leffler J and Weakley D (1998). Early treatment of congenital unilateral cataract minimizes unequal competition. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 39(9):1560–1566. Record number: 3063

      Bonovas S, Filioussi K, Tsantes A and Peponis V (2004). Epidemiological association between cigarette smoking and primary open-angle glaucoma: a meta-analysis. Public Health 118(4):256–261. Record number: 695

      Bonovas S, Peponis V and Filioussi K (2004). Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma: a meta-analysis. Diabetic Medicine 21(6):609–614. Record number: 2227

      Brouzas D, Charakidas A, Papagiannakopoulos D and Koukoulomatis P (2003). Elastic cord-induced ocular injuries. Injury 34(5):323–326. Record number: 778

      Brown SA, Weih LM, Fu CL, Dimitrov P, Taylor HR and McCarty CA (2000). Prevalence of amblyopia and associated refractive errors in an adult population in Victoria, Australia. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 7(4):249–258. Record number: 2465

      Buch H, Vinding T, La Cour M and Nielsen NV (2001). The prevalence and causes of bilateral and unilateral blindness in an elderly urban Danish population. The Copenhagen City Eye Study. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 79(5):441–449. Record number: 983

      Buch H, Vinding T, La Cour M, Appleyard M, Jensen GB and Nielsen NV (2004). Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among 9980 Scandinavian adults: the Copenhagen City Eye Study. Ophthalmology 111(1):53–61. Record number: 982

      Buch H, Vinding T, la Cour M, Jensen G, Prause JU and Nielsen NV (2005). Risk factors for age-related maculopathy in a 14-year followup study: the Copenhagen City Eye Study. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 83(4):409–418. Record number: 650

      Budde WM (2000). Heredity in primary open-angle glaucoma. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 11(2):101–106. Record number: 2356
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      Budde WM and Jonas JB (1999). Family history of glaucoma in the primary and secondary open-angle glaucomas. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 237(7):554–557. Record number: 2357

      Bullimore MA, Jones LA, Moeschberger ML, Zadnik K and Payor RE (2002). A retrospective study of myopia progression in adult contact lens wearers. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 43(7):2110–2113. Record number: 2137

      Butler TK, Males JJ, Robinson LP, Wechsler AW, Sutton GL, Cheng J, Taylor P and McClellan K (2005). Six-year review of Acanthamoeba keratitis in New South Wales, Australia: 1997–2002. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 33(1):41–46. Record number: 2902

      Capao Filipe JA, Rocha-Sousa A, Falcao-Reis F and Castro-Correia J (2003). Modern sports eye injuries. British Journal of Ophthalmology 87(11):1336–1339. Record number: 1926

      Capao Filipe JA, Fernandes VL, Barros H, Falcao-Reis F and Castro-Correia J (2003). Soccer-related ocular injuries. Archives of Ophthalmology 121(5):687–694. Record number: 1927

      Capone Jr A (2003). Lens-sparing vitreous surgery for infantile amblyogenic vitreous hemorrhage. Retina 23(6):792–795. Record number: 829

      Catalano R and Maus M (2004). Economic antecedents of temporal variation in the incidence of ocular trauma. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 11(4):279–289. Record number: 1568

      Cavallini GM, Lugli N, Campi L, Pagliani L and Saccarola P (2003). Bottle-cork injury to the eye: a review of 13 cases. European Journal of Ophthalmology 13(3):287–291. Record number: 782

      Cedrone C, Culasso F, Cesareo M, Mancino R, Ricci F, Cupo G and Cerulli L (1999). Prevalence and incidence of age-related cataract in a population sample from Priverno, Italy. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 6(2):95–103. Record number: 1494

      Cellini M, Caramazza N, Mangiafico P, Possati GL and Caramazza R (1998). Fatty acid use in glaucomatous optic neuropathy treatment. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Suppl 227:41–42. Record number: 3179

      Chasan-Taber L, Willett WC, Seddon JM, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Colditz GA, Speizer FE and Hankinson SE (1999). A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70(4):509–516. Record number: 3336

      Chew H, Maberley DA, Ma P, Chang A and Maberley A (2005). Socioeconomic status and clinical features of patients undergoing photodynamic therapy or transpupillary thermotherapy for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization due to age-related macular degeneration. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology 40(3):384–388. Record number: 2503

      Chiu CJ and Taylor A (2007). Nutritional antioxidants and age-related cataract and maculopathy. Experimental Eye Research 84(2):229–245. Record number: 2752

      Chiu CJ, Hubbard LD, Armstrong J, Rogers G, Jacques PF, Chylack Jr LT, Hankinson SE, Willett WC and Taylor A (2006). Dietary glycemic index and carbohydrate in relation to early age-related macular degeneration. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83(4):880–886. Record number: 3222

      Cho E, Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Spiegelman D, Speizer FE, Rimm EB and Seddon JM (2000). Prospective study of alcohol consumption and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Archives of Ophthalmology 118(5):681–688. Record number: 755

      Cho E, Stampfer MJ, Seddon JM, Hung S, Spiegelman D, Rimm EB, Willett WC and Hankinson SE (2001). Prospective study of zinc intake and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Annals of Epidemiology 11(5):328–336. Record number: 2792

      Cho E, Seddon JM, Rosner B, Willett WC and Hankinson SE (2004). Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy. Archives of Ophthalmology 122(6):883–892. Record number: 3225

      Chong EM, Wilhelmus KR, Matoba AY, Jones DB, Coats DK and Paysse EA (2004). Herpes simplex virus keratitis in children. American Journal of Ophthalmology 138(3):474–475. Record number: 1465

      Christen WG, Liu S, Schaumberg DA and Buring JE (2005). Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cataract in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81(6):1417–1422. Record number: 3340

      Claydon BE, Efron N and Woods C (1997). A prospective study of the effect of education on non-compliant behaviour in contact lens wear. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 17(2):137–146. Record number: 2817

      Cohen O, Norymberg K, Neumann E and Dekel H (1998). Complication-free duration and the risk of development of retinopathy in elderly diabetic patients. Archives of Internal Medicine 158(6):641–644. Record number: 1577

      Coleman AL and Wilson MR (2000). Risk factor assessment and glaucoma screening. Ophthalmology Clinics of North America 13(3):349–359. Record number: 1825
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      Cordain L, Eaton SB, Miller JB, Lindeberg S and Jensen C (2002). An evolutionary analysis of the aetiology and pathogenesis of juvenile-onset myopia. Acta Opthalmologica Scandinavica 80(2):125–135. Record number: 3393

      Cruickshanks KJ, Klein R, Klein BE and Nondahl DM (2001). Sunlight and the 5-year incidence of early age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Archives of Ophthalmology 119 (2):246–250. Record number: 901

      Cugati S, Kifley A, Mitchell P and Wang JJ (2006). Temporal trends in the age-specific prevalence of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in older persons: population-based survey findings. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 74(3):301–308. Record number: 1579

      Cumming RG, Mitchell P and Smith W (2000). Diet and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 107(3):450–456. Record number: 3343

      Dagnelie G, Zorge IS and McDonald TM (2000). Lutein improves visual function in some patients with retinal degeneration: a pilot study via the internet. Optometry 71(3):147–164. Record number: 2740

      Dandona L, Dandona R, Naduvilath TJ, McCarty CA and Rao GN (1999). Population based assessment of diabetic retinopathy in an urban population in southern India. British Journal of Ophthalmology 83(8):937–940. Record number: 1580

      De Leon-Ortega JE and Girkin CA (2002). Ocular trauma-related glaucoma. Ophthalmology Clinics of North America 15(2):215–223. Record number: 847

      de Schryver I, Rozenberg F, Cassoux N, Michelson S, Kestelyn P, Lehoang P, Davis JL and Bodaghi B (2006). Diagnosis and treatment of cytomegalovirus iridocyclitis without retinal necrosis. British Journal of Ophthalmology 90(7):852–855. Record number: 1444

      de Voogd S, Ikram MK, Wolfs RC, Jansonius NM, Witteman JC, Hofman A and de Jong PT (2006). Is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma? The Rotterdam Study. Ophthalmology 113(10):1827–1831. Record number: 2230

      DeAngelis MM, Lane AM, Shah CP, Ott J, Dryja TP and Miller JW (2004). Extremely discordant sib-pair study design to determine risk factors for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Archives of Ophthalmology 122(4):575–580. Record number: 756

      Delcourt C, Cristol J-P, Tessier F, Leger CL, Michel F, Papoz L and the POLA Study Group (2000). Risk factors for cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts: the POLA study. American Journal of Epidemiology 151(5):497–504. Record number: 613

      Dev S, Pulido JS, Tessler HH, Mittra RA, Han DP, Mieler WF and Connor Jr TB (1999). Progression of diabetic retinopathy after endophthalmitis. Ophthalmology 106(4):774–781. Record number: 1469

      Dogru M, Inoue M, Nakamura M and Yamamoto M (1998). Modifying factors related to asymmetric diabetic retinopathy. Eye 12(6):929–933. Record number: 1818

      Donahue SP (2006). Relationship between anisometropia, patient age, and the development of amblyopia. American Journal of Ophthalmology 142(1):132–140. Record number: 1023

      Drolsum L (1999). Eye injuries in sports. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 9(1):53–56. Record number: 1924

      Duguid IG and Leaver PK (2000). Giant retinal tears resulting from eye gouging in rugby football. British Journal of Sports Medicine 34(1):65–66. Record number: 848

      Durant JS, Frost NA, Trivella M and Sparrow JM (2006). Risk factors for cataract subtypes waterclefts and retrodots: two case–control studies. Eye 20(11):1254–1267. Record number: 626

      Edwards MH (1999). The development of myopia in Hong Kong children between the ages of 7 and 12 years: a five-year longitudinal study. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 19(4):286–294. Record number: 2139
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      Egbert PR, Jacobson DW, Fiadoyor S, Dadzie P and Ellingson KD (2005). Onchocerciasis: a potential risk factor for glaucoma. British Journal of Ophthalmology 89(7):796–798. Record number: 1448

      Ejere H, Alhassan MB and Rabiu M (2004). Face washing promotion for preventing active trachoma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 3. Record number: 3403

      Evans JR (1999). Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 3. Record number: 3407

      Evans JR (2006). Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 2. Record number: 2796

      Evans JR and Henshaw K (1999). Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 4. Record number: 3405

      Fan BJ, Leung YF, Wang N, Lam SC, Liu Y, Tam OS and Pang CP (2004). Genetic and environmental risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma. Chinese Medical Journal 117(5):706–710. Record number: 692

      Farrier SL, Farrier JN and Gilmour AS (2006). Eye safety in operative dentistry — a study in general dental practice. British Dental Journal 200(4):218–223. Record number: 2095

      Fine D and West S (1997). Absence of a relationship between malnutrition and trachoma in preschool children. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 4(2):83–88. Record number: 1962

      Fineman MS, Fischer DH, Jeffers JB, Buerger DG and Repke C (2000). Changing trends in paintball sport-related ocular injuries. Archives of Ophthalmology 118(1):60–64. Record number: 795

      Fitzgerald DE, Chung I and Krumholtz I (2005). An analysis of high myopia in a pediatric population less than 10 years of age. Optometry 76(2):102–114. Record number: 1801

      Flaherty MP and O'Flaherty SJ (1998). Neurological deterioration following head injury: the eyes had it. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 34(2):202–205. Record number: 881

      Flammer J, Orgul S, Costa VP, Orzalesi N, Krieglstein GK, Serra LM, Renard JP and Stefansson E (2002). The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 21(4):359–393. Record number: 1633

      Flood V, Smith W, Wang JJ, Manzi F, Webb K and Mitchell P (2002). Dietary antioxidant intake and incidence of early age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 109(12):2272–2278. Record number: 2798

      Flynn TH, Fennessy K, Horgan N, Walsh B, O'Connell E, Cleary P and Beatty S (2005). Ocular injury in hurling. British Journal of Sports Medicine 39(8):493–496. Record number: 851

      Foulks GN (2006). Prolonging contact lens wear and making contact lens wear safer. American Journal of Ophthalmology 141(2):369–373. Record number: 2823

      Friedman DS, Wilson MR, Liebmann JM, Fechtner RD and Weinreb RN (2004). An evidence-based assessment of risk factors for the progression of ocular hypertension and glaucoma. American Journal of Ophthalmology 138(Suppl 3):S19–31. Record number: 2593

      Gallagher RP and Lee TK (2006). Adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation: a brief review. Progress in Biophysical and Molecular Biology 92(1):119–131.

      Garbe E, LeLorier J, Boivin JF and Suissa S (1997). Risk of ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma in elderly patients on oral glucocorticoids. Lancet 350(9083):979–982. Record number: 1634
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      Gartlehner G, Hansen RA, Carson SS and Lohr KN (2006). Efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of health outcomes. Annals of Family Medicine 4(3):253–262. Record number: 1067

      Gasser P (1999). Why study vascular factors in glaucoma? International Ophthalmology 22(4):221–225. Record number: 1636

      Gasser P, Stumpfig D, Schotzau A, Ackermann-Liebrich U and Flammer J (1999). Body mass index in glaucoma. Journal of Glaucoma 8(1):8–11. Record number: 1980

      Georgopoulos G, Andreanos D, Liokis N, Papakonstantinou D, Vergados J and Theodossiadis G (1997). Risk factors in ocular hypertension. European Journal of Ophthalmology 7(4):357–363. Record number: 1638

      Girkin CA, McGwin Jr G, Long C, Morris R and Kuhn F (2005). Glaucoma after ocular contusion: a cohort study of the United States Eye Injury Registry. Journal of Glaucoma 14(6):470–473. Record number: 854

      Giusti C (2003). Transient hyperopic refractive changes in newly diagnosed juvenile diabetes. Swiss Medical Weekly 133(13–14):200–205. Record number: 2151

      Goodrich ME, Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Koutts J and Burnett L (1999). Plasma fibrinogen and other cardiovascular disease risk factors and cataract. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 6(4):279–290. Record number: 2670

      Grignolo FM, Di Bari A, Bellan Jr B, Camerino L and Maina G (1998). Long-term refractive and phoric changes in visual display unit (VDU) operators. European Journal of Ophthalmology 8(2):76–80. Record number: 2194

      Gudmundsdottir E, Jonasson F, Jonsson V, Stefansson E, Sasaki H and Sasaki K (2000). "With the rule" astigmatism is not the rule in the elderly. Reykjavik Eye Study: a population based study of refraction and visual acuity in citizens of Reykjavik 50 years and older. Iceland-Japan Co-Working Study Groups. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 78(6):642–646. Record number: 2127

      Guzowski M, Fraser-Bell S, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ and Mitchell P (2003). Asymmetric refraction in an older population: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology 136(3):551–553. Record number: 2128

      Gwiazda JE, Hyman L, Norton TT, Hussein ME, Marsh-Tootle W, Manny R, Wang Y, Everett D and the COMET Group (2004). Accommodation and related risk factors associated with myopia progression and their interaction with treatment in COMET children. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 45(7):2143–2151. Record number: 1870

      Haegerstrom-Portnoy G, Schneck ME, Brabyn JA and Lott LA (2002). Development of refractive errors into old age. Optometry and Vision Science 79(10):643–649. Record number: 2130

      Hammersmith KM (2006). Diagnosis and management of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 17(4):327–331. Record number: 2931

      Hatt S, Wormald R and Burr J (2006). Screening for prevention of optic nerve damage due to chronic open angle glaucoma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 4. Record number: 3399

      Hiratsuka Y and Li G (2001). Alcohol and eye diseases: a review of epidemiologic studies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 62(3):397–402. Record number: 638

      Ho JH, Chang RJ, Wheeler NC and Lee DA (1997). Ophthalmic disorders among the homeless and nonhomeless in Los Angeles. Journal of the American Optometric Association 68(9):567–573. Record number: 2518
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      Hodge WG, Barnes D, Schachter HM, Pan YI, Lowcock EC, Zhang L, Sampson M, Morrison A, Tran K, Miguelez M and Lewin G (2006). The evidence for efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in preventing or slowing the progression of retinitis pigmentosa: a systematic review. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology 41(4):481–490. Record number: 3142

      Hodge WG, Schachter HM, Barnes D, Pan Y, Lowcock EC, Zhang L, Sampson M, Morrison A, Tran K, Miguelez M and Lewin G (2006). Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in preventing age-related macular degeneration — a systematic review. Ophthalmology 113(7):1165–1172. Record number: 3243

      Hodge WG, Barnes D, Schachter HM, Pan YI, Lowcock EC, Zhang L, Sampson M, Morrison A, Tran K, Miguelez M and Lewin G (2007). Evidence for the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on progression of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review. Retina 27(2):216–221. Record number: 3164

      Hoffman DR and Birch DG (1998). Omega 3 fatty acid status in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 83:52–60. Record number: 2741

      Holland P, O'Brien DF and May PL (2004). Should airguns be banned? British Journal of Neurosurgery 18(2):124–129. Record number: 1941

      Howard AA, Arnsten JH and Gourevitch MN (2004). Effect of alcohol consumption on diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine 140(3):211–219. Record number: 745

      Huang HY, Caballero B, Chang S, Alberg AJ, Semba RD, Schneyer CR, Wilson RF, Cheng TY, Vassy J, Prokopowicz G, Barnes II GJ and Bass EB (2006). The efficacy and safety of multivitamin and mineral supplement use to prevent cancer and chronic disease in adults: a systematic review for a National Institutes of Health state-of-the-science conference. Annals of Internal Medicine 145(5):372–385. Record number: 2757

      Huynh SC, Wang XY, Ip J, Robaei D, Kifley A, Rose KA and Mitchell P (2006). Prevalence and associations of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in a population based sample of 6 year old children. British Journal of Ophthalmology 90(5):597–601. Record number: 1805

      Islam SS, Doyle EJ, Velilla A, Martin CJ and Ducatman AM (2000). Epidemiology of compensable work-related ocular injuries and illnesses: incidence and risk factors. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 42(6):575–581. Record number: 1540

      Islam SS, Nambiar AM, Doyle EJ, Velilla AM, Biswas RS and Ducatman AM (2000). Epidemiology of work-related burn injuries: experience of a state-managed workers' compensation system. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection and Critical Care 49(6):1045–1051. Record number: 1541

      Iwig M, Glaesser D, Fass U and Struck HG (2004). Fatty acid cytotoxicity to human lens epithelial cells. Experimental Eye Research 79(5):689–704. Record number: 3194

      Jacques PF, Taylor A, Moeller S, Hankinson SE, Rogers G, Tung W, Ludovico J, Willett WC and Chylack Jr LT (2005). Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities. Archives of Ophthalmology 123(4):517–526. Record number: 3354

      Jain V, Natarajan S, Shome D and Gadgil D (2007). Spectacle-induced ocular trauma: an unusual mechanism. Cornea 26(1):109–110. Record number: 1917

      Jayasundera T, Vote B and Joondeph B (2003). Golf-related ocular injuries. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 31(2):110–113. Record number: 1916

      Jaycock PD, Poon W, Wigley F, Williamson J and Williamson TH (2004). Three cases of intraocular foreign bodies as a result of walking or running along roadways. American Journal of Ophthalmology 137(3):585–586. Record number: 1905

      Jeng BH, Steinemann TL, Henry P and Brodsky MC (2001). Severe penetrating ocular injury from ninja stars in two children. Ophthalmic Surgery and Lasers 32(4):336–337. Record number: 803

      Kalayoglu MV, Bula D, Arroyo J, Gragoudas ES, D'Amico D and Miller JW (2005). Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae within human choroidal neovascular membranes secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 243(11):1080–1090. Record number: 1130
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      Kang JH, Pasquale LR, Rosner BA, Willett WC, Egan KM, Faberowski N and Hankinson SE (2003). Prospective study of cigarette smoking and the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma. Archives of Ophthalmology 121(12):1762–1768. Record number: 686

      Kang JH, Pasquale LR, Willett W, Rosner B, Egan KM, Faberowski N and Hankinson SE (2003). Antioxidant intake and primary open-angle glaucoma: a prospective study. American Journal of Epidemiology 158(4):337–346. Record number: 2774

      Kang JH, Pasquale LR, Willett WC, Rosner BA, Egan KM, Faberowski N and Hankinson SE (2004). Dietary fat consumption and primary open-angle glaucoma. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79(5):755–764. Record number: 3180

      Karaman K, Gverovi-Antunica A, Rogosi V, Lakos-Krzelj V, Rozga A and Radocaj-Perko S (2004). Epidemiology of adult eye injuries in Split-Dalmatian county. Croatian Medical Journal. 45(3):304–309. Record number: 1542

      Kelly SP, Thornton J, Edwards R, Sahu A and Harrison R (2005). Smoking and cataract: review of causal association. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery 31(12):2395–2404. Record number: 460

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      Zetterstrom C, Lundvall A and Kugelberg M (2005). Cataracts in children. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery 31(4):824–840. Record number: 2722
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A7.2 Background references

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2005. Vision problems among older Australians. Bulletin no. 27. AIHW cat. no. AUS 60, AIHW, Canberra.
      Bailey TA, Kanuga N, Romero IA, Greenwood J, Luthert PJ and Cheetham ME (2004). Oxidative stress affects the junctional integrity of retinal pigment epithelial cells. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 45(2):678–684.

      Hiratsuka Y and Li G (2001). Alcohol and eye diseases: a review of epidemiologic studies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 62(3):397–402

      Kelly SP, Thornton J, Edwards R, Sahu A and Harrison R (2005). Smoking and cataract: review of causal association. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery 31(12):2395–2404.

      NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council) (1999). A Guide to the Development, Evaluation and Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines, NHMRC, Canberra.

      NHMRC (1999). How to Review the Evidence: Systematic Identification and Review of Scientific Literature, NHMRC, Canberra.

      NHMRC (2000). How to Use the Evidence: Assessment and Application of Scientific Evidence, NHMRC, Canberra.

      NHMRC (2001). How to Review the Evidence: Systematic Identification and Review of the Scientific Literature, NHMRC, Canberra.

      NHMRC (2005). Additional Levels of Evidence and Grades of Recommendations for Developers of Guidelines: Pilot Program 2005–07, NHMRC, Canberra.
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A7.3 Areas requiring further research (Chapter 6)

Astle WF, Ingram AD, Isaza GM and Echeverri P (2007). Paediatric pseudophakia: analysis of intraocular lens power and myopic shift. Clinical and experimental ophthalmology 35:244-251.
      Jones LA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger ML and Zadnik K (2007). Parental History of Myopia, Sports and Outdoor Activities, and Future Myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 48(8):3524-3532.

      Klein RJ, Zeiss C, Chew EY, Tsai J-Y, Sackler RS, Haynes C, Henning AK, SanGiovanni JP, Mane SM, Mayne ST, Bracken MB, Ferris FL, Ott J, Barnstable C and Hoh J (2005). Complement Factor H Polymorphism in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Science 308:385-389.

      Kwok SL, Pierscionek BK, Bullimore M, Swarbrick HA, Mountford J and Sutton G (2005). Orthokeratology for myopic children: wolf in sheep’s clothing? Clinical and experimental ophthalmology 33:343-347.

      Morgan I and Rose K (2005). How genetic is school myopia? Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 24:1-38.

      Mullins RF (2007). Genetic insights into the pathobiology of age-related macular degeneration. International Ophthalmology Clinics 47:1-14.

      Rosner M, Laor A and Belkin M (1995). Myopia and stature: Findings in a population of 106,926 males. European Journal of Ophthalmology 5:1-6.

      Schmidt S, Hauser MA, Scott WK, Postel EA, Agarwal A, Gallins P, Wong F, Chen YS, Spencer K, Schnetz-Boutaud N, Haines JL and Pericak-Vance MA (2006). Cigarette Smoking Strongly Modifies the Association of LOC387715 and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The American Journal of Human Genetics 78:852-864.

      Suzuki Y, Iwase A, Araie M, Yamamoto T, Abe H, Shirato S, Kuwayama Y, Mishima HK, Shimizu H and Tomita G (2006). Risk Factors for Open-Angle Glaucoma in a Japanese Population: The Tajimi Study. Ophthalmology 113:1613-1617.

      Vongphanit J, Mitchell P and Wang JJ (2002). Prevalence and Progression of Myopic Retinopathy in an Older Population. Ophthalmology 109(4):704-711.
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