Australian Trachoma Surveillance Report 2014

Northern Territory Results

Page last updated: 30 October 2015

Northern Territory results - Figures

Northern Territory results -Tables

Summary

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Trachoma program coverage

  • In 2014, the NT identified 78 communities in five regions as being at risk of trachoma (Table 2.1).
  • Of 78 at-risk communities, 44 communities were determined to require screening for trachoma and a further 19 communities were identified as requiring treatment without screening (see methodology) leading to 63 communities determined to require screening, treatment or both screening and treatment for trachoma (Table 2.1).
  • Of these 63 communities, 62 received screening, treatment or both screening and treatment according to the guidelines (Table 2.1, Table 2.3).
  • The remaining 15 at-risk communities did not require screening or treatment as their previous year’s prevalence was under 5% (see methodology).

Screening coverage

  • In 2014, the NT identified 44 communities in the five regions requiring screening for trachoma and all of these received screening (Table 2.1).
  • The proportion of children aged 5-9 years screened in the 44 communities was 92%, ranging from 79% in Alice Springs Remote region, to 100% in Katherine region (Table 2.2, Figure 2.4).

Clean face prevalence

  • Clean face prevalence was assessed in all communities that were screened.
  • The overall prevalence of clean faces among 5-9-year-old children in the screened communities was 86%, ranging from 70% in Alice Springs Remote region, to 96% in the Katherine region (Table 2.2, Figure 2.5).

Trachoma prevalence

  • The observed prevalence of trachoma in children aged 5-9 years screened in 2014 was 5.5%. Prevalence ranged from 0.6% in Katherine region to 28.7% in Barkly region (Table 2.2, Figure 2.6a).
  • Projecting from the previous year’s data in communities that did not screen due to new guideline implementation (see methodology), the prevalence of trachoma was 5.9%, ranging from 1.1 % in Darwin Rural region to 24.3% in Barkly region (Table 2.2, Figure 2.6b).
  • No trachoma was reported in 34 communities in 2014, including communities that screened for trachoma in 5-9-year-old children and that did not screen in accordance with guidelines(Figure 2.7).
  • Endemic levels of trachoma were reported in 38 communities in 2014 including communities that screened for trachoma in 5-9-year-old children and those that did not screen in 2014 in accordance with guidelines (Figure 2.7).
  • Non endemic levels of trachoma have been reported for 16 communities over a period of 5 years which may reclassify these communities as being not at risk for trachoma (Figure 2.8).

Treatment delivery and coverage

  • Trachoma treatment strategies were applied in 43 communities (Table 2.3).
  • Treatment was delivered to active cases and households in 17 communities, and to the whole of community in 26 communities as per guidelines (Table 2.3).
  • The overall treatment coverage in all regions was 89% with 7805 doses of azithromycin delivered (Table 2.4).
  • One community did not treat according to CDNA guidelines. This community treated active cases and household contacts when whole of community treatment was required, due to time limitations (Table 2.3).

Trichiasis

  • Reporting for trichiasis screening was available for 67 communities (Table 2.5).
  • Overall 4852 adults aged over 15 years were reported to be screened.
  • The prevalence of trichiasis in adults aged 15 years and over was 0.6%, and 1.1% in adults aged 40 years and over.
  • Surgery for trichiasis was reported to be undertaken for 12 adults in 2014 (Table 2.5).

Health promotion

  • Health promotion activities were reported to have occurred in 50 communities in the Alice Springs Remote, Barkly, Darwin Rural, East Arnhem and Katherine regions.
  • A total of 123 health promotion activities were reported.
  • The majority of the health promotion activities were delivered to children, teachers and childcare or preschool staff members (Table 2.6).


Northern Territory results - Figures

Figure 2.1 Trachoma prevalence in children aged 5-9 years, number of communities that were screened, treated or both for trachoma and number of at-risk communities, Northern Territory, 2014

Figure 2.1 is a map of the NT, divided into the 5 NT regions, to illustrate the trachoma prevalence in children aged 5 to 9 years. The map indicates less than 5% in the most northern regions of Darwin Rural, East Arnhem and Katherine; 20% or greater in the Barkly and Alice Springs Remote regions.  The map also lists the number of communities per region that were screened and or treated; the remaining number of at-risk communities that did not require screening or treatment; and the percentage of trachoma prevalence in that region for 2014. Alice Springs Remote screened and/or treated 23 of 26 at-risk communities, and recorded 21.9% trachoma prevalence. Barkley screened and/or treated 9 of 12 at-risk communities, and recorded 28.7% trachoma prevalence. Darwin Rural screened and/or treated 8 of 12 at-risk communities, and recorded 1.3% trachoma prevalence. East Arnhem screened and/or treated 5 of 9 at-risk communities, and recorded 1.1% trachoma prevalence and Katherine screened and/or treated 18 of 19 at-risk communities, and recorded 3.3% trachoma prevalence.

Figure 2.2 Number of communities at risk, by region, in the Northern Territory, 2007-2014

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Figure 2.2 is a Line graph illustrating the number of communities at-risk of trachoma for the years 2007 to 2014, by 5 regions (Alice Springs Remote, Barkly, Darwin Rural, East Arnhem and Katherine).
Alice Springs Remote data indicates a slight decreasing trend from 31% in 2007 to 26% in 2014. Barkly data indicates an increasing trend from 8% in 2007 to 10% in 2011, followed by a dip to 6% in 2012, then increases again to 12% in 2013 and 2014.Darwin Rural data rises from 11% in 2008 to about 15% for 2009 to 2012 before decreasing again to 12% for 2013 and 2014. East Arnhem remains consistently at 12% for 2007 to 2011 then gradually decreases to 9% in 2014 and Katherine data indicates a gradual decrease from 22% in 2007 to 17% in 2011, then increases slightly to 19% for 2012 to 2014

Figure 2.3 Number of at-risk communities by region, according to trachoma control strategy implemented, Northern Territory, 2014

Figure 2.3 is a Stacked bar graph illustrating the number of at-risk communities that were screened and/or treated under the Trachoma Control Strategy by 5 regions (Alice Springs Remote, Barkly, Darwin Rural, East Arnhem and Katherine). Alice Springs Remote region data indicates that of 26 at-risk communities: 3 did not require screening or treatment;2 were screened;7 were screened and treated; and 14 received treatment only. Barkly region data indicates that of 12 at-risk communities: 3 did not require screening or treatment; 8 were screened and treated; and 1 received treatment only. Darwin Rural region data indicates that of 12 at-risk communities: 4 did not require screening or treatment;4 were screened; and 4 were screened and treated. East Arnhem region data indicates that of 9 at-risk communities: 4 did not require screening or treatment2 were screened; and  3 were screened and treated. and Katherine region data indicates that of 19 at-risk communities: 1 did not require screening or treatment; 12 were screened; 2 were screened and treated; and 4 received treatment only.

Figure 2.4 Population screening coverage of children aged 5-9 years in communities that required screening for trachoma, by region, Northern Territory, 2014

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Figure 2.4 is a Bar graph illustrating coverage by percentage of children aged 5 to 9 years in communities that required screening in Alice Springs Remote, Barkly, Darwin Rural, East Arnhem and Katherine. Alice Springs Remote indicates 79%. Barkly indicates 92%. Darwin Rural indicates 94%. East Arnhem indicates 89%. Katherine indicates 100%.

Figure 2.5 Proportion of screened children aged 5-9 years who had a clean face, by region, in the Northern Territory, 2007-2014

Figure 2.5 is a Line graph indicating the proportion of screened children aged 5 to 9 years who had a clean face for the years 2007 to 2014 in Alice Springs Remote, Barkly, Darwin Rural, East Arnhem and Katherine. The majority of data points show fluctuations in proportions across the years and are at 70% and above for all regions, except in the Alice Springs Remote region which is consistently below 60%. Alice Springs Remote data indicates 56% for 2007, 49% for 2008 and 62% for 2009, then steadily decreases to 40% in 2013 and rising steeply to 70% in 2014. Barkly data indicates 100% in 2007, dropping significantly to 57% in 2008 and then rises incrementally to 88% in 2011 before slowly declining to 78% in 2014. Darwin Rural data indicates 96% in 2007, then hovers around 80% for 2008 to 2010, dips to 74% in 2011 before rising to 90% in 2012 and gradually decreases to 77% in 2014. East Arnhem data indicates 96% in 2007 then fluctuates at around 85% or 90% for 2008 to 2010 before peaking at 99% in 2011 and dropping to 79% in 2012 and increasing again to 93% in 2014 and Katherine data indicates 100% in 2007, decreasing incrementally to 70% in 2010, increasing to about 85% for 2011 to 2013 and increasing to 96 in 2014.

Figure 2.6a Trachoma prevalence among children aged 5-9 years in communities that were screened, by region, Northern Territory, 2007 – 2014

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Figure 2.6a is a Line graph illustrating the trachoma prevalence in children aged 5 to 9 years in communities that were screened in the years 2007 to 2014 in Alice Springs Remote, Barkly, Darwin Rural, East Arnhem and Katherine.  Most regions recorded a spike in 2008, followed by a decline to 2013 with sharp increases in the Alice Springs Remote and Barkly regions in 2014. Alice Springs Remote data indicates 22% in 2007, an increase to 33% for 2008 to 2010, followed by a steep decrease to 14 in 2011 and under 10% in 2012 and 2013 before rising again to 22% in 2014. Barkly data indicates 30% in 2007, spikes to 61% in 2008 before dropping incrementally to a low of 4.2% in 2013, and rising again to 28.7% in 2014. Darwin Rural data indicates 7% in 2007, spikes to 21% in 2008, 2% in 2009, 4% in 2010 and 2011 and around 1% in 2012 to 2014. East Arnhem data indicates 6% in 2007, and then fluctuates between 1% to 4% for the years 2008 to 2014 and Katherine data indicates 20% in 2007 followed by a spike to 43% in 2008, down to 15% in 2009, 18% in 2010 and under 5% for 2011 to 2013 with less than 1% in 2014.

Figure 2.6b Trachoma prevalence among children aged 5-9 years, by region, Northern Territory with projected values,* 2007–2014

Figure 2.6b is a Line graph illustrating the trachoma prevalence in children aged 5 to 9 years in communities that were screened in the years 2007 to 2014 in Alice Springs Remote, Barkly, Darwin Rural, East Arnhem and Katherine. 
Most regions recorded a spike in 2008, followed by a decline to 2013 with sharp increases in the Alice Springs Remote and Barkly regions in 2014. Alice Springs Remote data indicates 22% in 2007, an increase to 33% for 2008 to 2010, followed by a steep decrease to 14 in 2011 around 10% in 2012 and 2013 before rising again to 16% in 2014. Barkly data indicates 30% in 2007, spikes to 61% in 2008 before dropping incrementally to a low of 4.2% in 2013, and rising again to 24.3% in 2014. Darwin Rural data indicates 7% in 2007, spikes to 21% in 2008, 2% in 2009, 4% in 2010 and 2011 and around 2% in 2012 to 2014. East Arnhem data indicates 6% in 2007, and then fluctuates between 1% to 4% for the years 2008 to 2014. Katherine data indicates 20% in 2007 followed by a spike to 43% in 2008, down to 15% in 2009, 18% in 2010 and about 5% for 2011 and 2012, rising to 8% in 2013 and to 3.3% in 2014.

* Including communities that screened in 2014 and those that did not screen in 2014 in accordance with revised guideline instructions (see methodology)

Figure 2.7 Number of at-risk communities according to level of trachoma prevalence* in 5-9-year-old children, by region, Northern Territory, 2014

Figure 2.7 is a Stacked bar graph indicating prevalence in the number of screened at-risk communities by region in Alice Springs Remote, Barkly, Darwin Rural, East Arnhem and Katherine. The Alice Springs Remote column indicates that of 26 communities: 7 had greater than or equal to 20%; 8 had greater than or equal to 10% but less than 20%, 6 had greater than or equal to 5% but less than 10%; and 5 had no trachoma. The Barkly column indicates that of 12 communities: 6 had greater than or equal to 20%; 3 had greater than or equal to 10% but less than 20%; and 3 had no trachoma. The Darwin Rural column indicates that of 12 communities: 2 had greater than or equal to 10% but less than 20%, 3 had less than 5%; and 7 had no trachoma. The East Arnhem column indicates that of 9 communities: 3 had less than 5%; and 6 had no trachoma. The Katherine column indicates that of 19 communities: 1 had greater than or equal to 20%; 1 had greater than or equal to 10% but less than 20%, 4 had greater than or equal to 5% but less than 10%; and 13 had no trachoma.

* Including communities that screened in 2014 and those that did not screen in 2014 in accordance with revised guideline instructions (see methodology)

Figure 2.8 Communities according to number of years* of trachoma prevalence under 5%, by region, Northern Territory, 2014

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Figure 2.8 is a Stacked bar graph indicating trachoma prevalence kept under 5% over 5+ years in Alice Springs Remote, Barkly, Darwin Rural, East Arnhem and Katherine. 
The Alice Springs Remote column indicates that from a total of 5 communities: 2 communities for 1 year; 2 communities for 3 years; and 1 community for 4 years.
The Barkley column indicates that from a total of 3 communities there are: 2 communities for 1 year; and 1 community for 3 years.
The Darwin Rural column indicates that from a total of 10 communities, there are: 1 community for 1 year; 1 community for 2 years; 2 communities for 4 years; and 6 communities for 5+ years.
The East Arnhem column indicates that from a total of 8 communities, there are: 1 community for 1 year; 1 community for 3 years; 6 communities for 5+ years.
The Katherine column indicates that from a total of 13 communities, there are: 2 communities for 1 year; 4 communities for 2 years; 1 community for 3 years; 2 communities for 4 years; and 4 communities for 5+ years.

* 5 years with a prevalence below 5% classifies a community as not at risk of trachoma
† Including communities that screened in 2014 and those that did not screen in 2014 in accordance with revised guideline instructions (see methodology)

Figure 2.9 Number of doses of azithromycin administered for the treatment of trachoma, by region, Northern Territory, 2007–2014

Figure 2.9 is a line graph indicating the number of doses of azithromycin administered for the treatment of trachoma in Alice Springs remote, Barkly, Darwin Rural, East Arnhem and Katherine regions.
The Alice Springs Remote data indicates 78 doses in 2007 increasing sharply to 1871 in 2008, 1938 in 2009, 2901 in 2010, 3179 in 2011, 2863 in 2012, increasing sharply again to 4206 in 2013 and 5589 in 2014. 
The Barkly data indicates 51 in 2007, 424 in 2008, 479 in 2009, 130 in 2010, 205 in 2011, 124 in 2012, 220 in 2013 and 631 in 2014. 
Darwin Rural data indicates 622 in 2008, a dip to 53 in 2009, then climbs incrementally 765 in 2010, 1659 in 2011, 3402 in 2012, and 3553 in 2013 then decreases steeply to 64 in 2014.  No data was collected in 2007.
East Arnhem data indicates 10 in 2008, 54 in 2009, 1223 in 2010, 147 in 2012 followed by a decreasing trend of 81 in 2013 and 64 in 2014. No data was collected in 2007.
Katherine data indicates 188 in 2007, 913 in 2008, 746 in 2009, 547 in 2010, 649 in 2011, 867 in 2012, 1172 in 2013 and 1452 in 2014.

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Northern Territory results - Tables

Table 2.1 Trachoma control delivery, Northern Territory, 2014
Number of communities
Alice Springs Remote
Barkly
Darwin Rural
East Arnhem
Katherine
Total
Not at-risk
* Communities treated without screening in 2014 as per guideline instructions
At risk (A)
26
12
12
9
19
78
3
Requiring screening for trachoma (B)
9
8
8
5
14
44
N/A
Screened for trachoma (C)
9
8
8
5
14
44
3
Requiring treatment only (D)
14
1
0
0
4
19
N/A
Treated* (E)
14
1
0
0
4
19
N/A
Screened and/or treated for trachoma (F = C+E)
23
9
8
5
18
63
3
Requiring neither screening or treatment for trachoma (G=A-B-D)
3
3
4
4
1
15
N/A
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Table 2.2 Trachoma screening coverage, trachoma prevalence and clean face prevalence in children, by age group, Northern Territory, 2014
Alice Springs Remote
Barkly
Darwin Rural
East Arnhem
Katherine
Total
Not at-risk
* Jurisdictional estimate
† In communities that were screened for trachoma
Number of communities screened
9
8
8
5
14
44
3
Age group (years)
0-4
5-9
10-14
0-14
0-4
5-9
10-14
0-14
0-4
5-9
10-14
0-14
0-4
5-9
10-14
0-14
0-4
5-9
10-14
0-14
0-4
5-9
10-14
0-14
0-4
5-9
10-14
0-14
Children examined for clean face
47
197
133
377
21
169
123
313
60
463
132
655
36
452
83
571
18
523
59
600
182
1804
530
2516
13
312
96
421
Children with clean face
20
138
121
279
17
131
118
266
49
356
129
534
30
420
81
531
14
500
59
573
130
1545
508
2183
6
266
94
366
Clean face prevalence (%)
43
70
91
74
81
78
96
85
82
77
98
82
83
93
98
93
78
96
100
96
71
86
96
87
46
85
98
87
Estimated number* of Aboriginal children in communities
132
215
172
519
31
181
185
397
420
489
629
1538
403
505
694
1602
456
547
593
1596
1442
1937
2273
5652
48
317
122
487
Children examined for trachoma
16
169
113
298
21
167
122
310
51
459
125
635
30
449
83
562
17
545
59
621
135
1789
502
2426
11
309
96
416
Trachoma screening coverage (%)
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
Children with active trachoma
7
37
6
50
4
48
15
67
0
6
0
6
0
5
3
8
0
3
0
3
99
24
24
134
0
12
1
13
Active trachoma prevalence (%)
43.8
21.9
5.3
16.8
19.0
28.7
12.3
21.6
0.0
1.3
0.0
0.9
0.0
1.1
3.6
1.4
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.5
8.1
5.5
4.8
5.5
0.0
3.9
1.0
3.1
Active trachoma prevalence using projected data
16.0
24.3
1.1
1.2
3.3
5.9
..
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Table 2.3 Treatment strategies, by region, Northern Territory, 2014
* Including communities designated as not at-risk
Number of communities
Alice Springs Remote
Barkly
Darwin Rural
East Arnhem
Katherine
Total
Required treatment for trachoma*
21
9
4
3
6
43
Treated for trachoma*
21
9
4
3
6
43
Screened and treated
7
8
4
3
2
24
Received treatment only
14
1
0
0
4
19
Received 6-monthly treatment
3
1
0
0
2
6
Did not require treatment
6
4
9
6
13
38
Treated active cases and households
4
4
4
3
2
17
Treated the whole of community
17
5
0
0
4
26
Not treated according to CDNA guidelines
0
1
0
0
0
1
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Table 2.4 Trachoma treatment coverage,* by age group, Northern Territory, 2014
Alice Springs Remote
Barkly
Darwin Rural
East Arnhem
Katherine
Total
** Including in communities designated as not at risk
Age group (years)
0-4
5-9
10-14
15+
All
0-4
5-9
10-14
15+
All
0-4
5-9
10-14
15+
All
0-4
5-9
10-14
15+
All
0-4
5-9
10-14
15+
All
0-4
5-9
10-14
15+
All
Active cases requiring treatment
7
40
6
..
53
4
57
16
..
77
0
6
0
..
6
0
5
3
..
8
0
2
0
..
2
11
110
25
..
146
Active cases who received treatment
7
37
6
..
50
4
52
15
..
71
0
6
0
..
6
0
5
0
..
5
0
2
0
..
2
11
102
21
..
134
Active cases who received treatment (%)
100
93
100
..
94
100
91
94
..
92
..
100
..
..
100
..
100
0
..
63
..
100
..
..
100
100
93
84
..
92
Estimated contacts requiring treatment
648
814
657
4171
6290
67
65
93
367
592
10
4
11
38
63
1
6
12
40
59
200
215
229
1006
1345
936
1104
1002
5622
8654
Number of contacts who received treatment
573
760
590
3616
5539
66
61
85
353
565
9
4
11
34
58
1
6
12
40
59
173
197
209
871
1168
822
1028
907
4914
7671
Estimated contacts who received treatment (%)
88
93
90
87
88
99
94
91
96
95
90
100
100
89
92
100
100
100
100
100
87
92
91
87
88
89
93
91
87
89
Total number of doses of azithromycin delivered
580
797
596
3616
5589
70
113
100
353
636
9
10
11
34
64
1
11
12
40
64
173
199
209
871
1452
833
1130
928
4914
7805
Estimated overall treatment coverage (%)
89
93
90
87
88
99
93
92
96
95
90
100
100
89
93
100
100
80
100
96
87
92
91
87
88
89
93
90
87
89
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Table 2.5 Trichiasis screening coverage, prevalence and treatment among Aboriginal adults aged over 40 years, Northern Territory, 2014
Alice Springs Remote
Barkly
Darwin Rural
East Arnhem
Katherine
Total
* Population estimate limited to trachoma endemic regions and does not take into account changing endemic regions over time and transiency between regions
Number of adults examined limited to numbers reported. This number does not account for adults who may be examined in routine adult health checks, and may also include multiple screening
Number of communities screened for trichiasis
21
4
15
8
19
67
Age group (years)
15-39
40+
15-39
40+
15-39
40+
15-39
40+
15-39
40+
15-39
40+
15+
Estimated population in region*
5893
1801
1206
285
7686
2158
6289
1868
4409
1119
25483
7231
32714
Adults examined
491
431
59
82
886
475
419
206
718
1085
2573
2279
4852
With trichiasis (% of adults examined)
1
(0.2)
14
(3.2)
0
0
0
0
0
1 (0.5)
1 (0.1)
11 (1)
2 (0.08)
25 (1.1)
27 (0.6)
Offered ophthalmic consultation
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
8
1
13
14
Declined ophthalmic consultation
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
1
7
8
Surgery in past 12 months
0
10
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12
12
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Table 2.6 Health promotion activities, by region, Northern Territory in 2014
Alice Springs Remote
Barkly
Darwin Rural
East Arnhem
Katherine
Total
* 2-4 times per year
5-12 times per year
Number of communities at risk
26
12
12
9
19
78
Number of communities that reported health promotion activities
23
7
4
3
13
50
Total number of programs reported
65
7
11
13
27
123
Methods of Health Promotion
One-on-one discussion
46
7
6
7
23
89
Presentation to group
25
5
4
2
19
55
Interactive group session
15
4
1
1
9
30
Social marketing
4
0
0
0
8
12
Print material/mass media
18
4
0
0
18
40
Sporting/community events
0
0
0
0
1
1
Other
0
2
0
0
2
4
Target audience
Health professionals/staff
18
2
2
3
6
31
Children
20
9
5
4
20
58
Youth
6
2
0
0
17
25
Teachers/childcare/preschool staff
16
4
2
1
12
35
Caregivers/parents
9
2
1
2
19
33
Community members
19
8
0
0
15
42
Community educators/health promoters
2
0
0
0
8
10
Interagency members
3
1
0
1
0
5
Frequency of health promotion activities
Once
0
1
2
3
2
8
Occasional*
56
6
9
10
23
104
Regular
0
0
0
0
0
0
Ongoing/routine
9
0
0
0
2
11
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Health promotion summary

In 2014, trachoma health promotion in the Northern Territory focused on broad, hygiene-related messages. Working with partners on messages that were relevant to all hygiene-related illnesses (such as skin, ear and respiratory illnesses) allowed the trachoma program greater reach in spreading the ‘clean faces’ message. As in previous years, strong support for trachoma health promotion was provided by the Indigenous Eye Health Unit based at the University of Melbourne, the Fred Hollows Foundation and Central Australian Aboriginal Congress.

A new ‘No Germs on Me’ campaign was launched by the Environmental Health Branch, in 2014. The new campaign included animated facial germs (nasal discharge) in its advertisements, in conjunction with hand germs. This inclusion of facial germs ties in very closely with the ‘Clean Faces, Strong Eyes’ focus of the Northern Territory trachoma program.

A ‘4 Step Hygiene’ poster was developed in 2014. This poster depicts nose blowing, hand washing, face washing and drying either with paper towels or air drying. The poster has been very well received by communities in 2014, with requests for additional posters and print material to be made available to schools and early childhood settings. Early childhood settings have reported the visual prompts that incorporate all aspects of daily hygiene as beneficial in promoting hygiene practices in children.

The Melbourne Football Club made two visits to the Northern Territory in 2014. Both visits allowed an opportunity for trachoma health promotion at football clinics, and resulted in media coverage for the trachoma program and Milpa, the trachoma goanna, who was present at all events. Television advertising and radio community service announcements focusing on trachoma elimination messages were also conducted in 2014.

Community members who received screening or treatment for trachoma were also given individual education regarding trachoma at the time of screening or treatment. Although resource intensive, anecdotally this approach leads to a greater understanding of trachoma awareness and education. Communities receiving community-wide treatments have requested further information to help them understand the treatment cycles. Work on a poster to provide visual information regarding treatment cycles has begun in 2014, and will continue to be refined in 2015.