Australian Trachoma Surveillance Report 2012

Technical Terms and Definitions

Trachoma screening and management data for 2012 were provided to the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit by the Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA), Western Australia (WA) and Queensland (Qld). Data were analysed by region in the NT, SA and WA, with five regions in the NT, four in SA and four in WA. Queensland screened six communities and its data was aggregated for analysis. Jurisdictional authorities had designated 204 remote Aboriginal communities as being at risk of endemic trachoma in 2012.

Page last updated: 23 December 2013

Definitions are based on the 2006 CDNA–Guidelines for the public health management of trachoma in Australia.1

Active trachoma:

The presence of chronic inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by infection with Chlamydia trachomatis; includes World Health Organization grades trachomatous inflammation ‑ follicular (TF) and trachomatous inflammation ‑ intense (TI).

At risk communities:

Communities classified by jurisdictions as being at higher risk of trachoma (generally based on prevalence above 5% in age group 5–9 years).

Clean face:

Absence of dirt, dust and crusting on cheeks and forehead.

Community screening coverage:

The number of communities screened for trachoma as a proportion of communities designated by jurisdictions to be at risk of trachoma.


Includes all members of the household or households in which a person with active trachoma regularly sleeps. However, where the community prevalence was greater than 10%, this term includes all members of the community, not only household members.

Endemic trachoma:

Prevalence of active trachoma of 5% or more in children aged 1‑9 years or a prevalence of trichiasis of at least 0.1% in the adult population.

Hyperendemic trachoma:

Prevalence of active trachoma of 20% or more in children aged 1‑9 years.

Prevalence of active trachoma:

Proportion of people found in a screening program to have active trachoma.

Screening coverage:

The proportion of people in a population examined for trachoma or trichiasis through a screening program.

Trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF):

Presence of five or more follicles in the upper tarsal conjunctiva, each at least 0.5 mm in diameter, as observed through a loupe.

Trachomatous inflammation–intense (TI):

Pronounced inflammatory thickening of the tarsal conjunctiva that obscures more than half of the normal deep tarsal vessels.

Trachomatous trichiasis (TT):

Evidence of the recent removal of in–turned eyelashes or at least one eyelash rubbing on the eyeball.

Treatment coverage:

The proportion of people requiring treatment for trachoma under guidelines who actually received treatment.