Acceptable Daily Intakes for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals: Current as of 31 March 2016

This document sets out the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for agricultural and veterinary chemicals used on food producing crops or animals. It includes entries that were recommended by the former Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals Standing Committee of the National Health and Medical Research Council until November 1992 and those established by the TGA since assuming responsibility for establishing ADI's on 12 March 1993.

Page last updated: May 2016

Current as of 31 March 2016

Printable version of the Acceptable Daily Intakes for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (PDF 2077 KB)

Commonwealth of Australia 2016

ISSN 1446-1412

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This document includes recommendations made by the former Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals Standing Committee (PACSC) of the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and by the Office of Chemical Safety (OCS) in the Department of Health.

Any comments or enquiries relating to the entries in this document should be addressed to:
The Office of Chemical Safety
Department of Health
MDP 71
GPO Box 9848
CANBERRA ACT 2601

Preface

This document sets out the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for agricultural and veterinary chemicals used on food producing crops or animals. It includes entries which were recommended by the former PACSC of the NHMRC until November 1992.

The responsibility for setting ADIs transferred to the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) of the Australian Department of Health (Health) on 12 March 1993. ADIs established by the OCS in the Department of Health are included in this document.

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Introduction

Over the past several decades, pesticides and other agricultural chemicals and veterinary drugs have become an important factor in food production. The availability of these chemicals has enabled significant increases in agricultural productivity to be achieved.

While the consumption of agricultural and veterinary chemicals is not desirable in itself, ingestion of these substances in the form of residues in agricultural produce may occur as a consequence of their intended use. Residues resulting from proper agricultural use are low as has been consistently demonstrated in Market Basket Surveys. Nevertheless, it is essential that a mechanism exists to assess the likelihood of risks to the public, and to reduce these risks to a minimum.

Prior to the registration of an agricultural or veterinary chemical product, applicants must provide registration authorities with a great deal of information in support of the use of the product, including details of toxicological studies. The toxicological studies are assessed with a view to determining the potential hazards associated with exposure to the chemical and also, where the chemical is used on food producing crops or animals, to establishing a level of intake which would be without appreciable risk to consumers. The toxicological hazards of existing chemicals are reviewed as further data becomes available.

Toxicological studies required for agricultural and veterinary chemicals range from those measuring single dose effects to those which examine the effects of lifetime exposure. Toxicity studies are generally performed on laboratory animals such as mice, rats, rabbits, and dogs and are designed to identify potential toxic effects. The studies usually involve the feeding/administration of various levels of the compound under investigation to animals, followed by observation and monitoring of clinical parameters and pathology which are indicative of toxicity in the test species.

The range of toxicological studies required to be undertaken is detailed in the "Ag Manual: The Requirements Manual for Agricultural Chemicals" and the "Vet Manual: The Requirements Manual for Veterinary Chemicals" which are published by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA). The immediate hazards from a chemical are determined by identifying the acute toxicity by the most likely routes of exposure, together with tests for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation. The potential for toxicity over longer periods, including possible tumour induction, is determined by studying the effects of repeated dosing, in some cases for the entire lifespan of the species. Multigeneration and developmental studies predict reproductive toxicity and the potential to cause birth defects, and studies are performed to assess the potential to cause effects on genetic material. Other specific investigations also may be required to clarify the mechanism of toxicity of a particular chemical.

Designs for the conduct of toxicological studies have become standardised to a large extent and international guidelines have been developed to achieve consistency in experimental techniques. In general, groups of the test species/organism are exposed to a number of dose levels (usually three) of the substance and a further group is left unexposed (control group). The treatment levels are selected so that the highest dose will cause some obvious toxic effects, while the lowest dose at least, should not result in a toxic effect. During the course of the study a range of observations is made in each group and a comparison is made of the findings in each treated group versus the control group.

Assessment of individual toxicity studies includes the determination of a no-observable-effect level (NOEL), which is the highest administered dose which does not cause any detectable (usually adverse) effect in the study. The overall NOEL for a chemical, determined in the most sensitive species, is then used to estimate the acceptable daily intake.

The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans is considered to be a level of intake of a chemical that can be ingested daily over an entire lifetime without any appreciable risk to health. It is calculated by dividing the overall NOEL from the animal studies by a safety factor. The magnitude of the safety factor is selected to account for uncertainties in extrapolation of animal data to humans, variation between humans, the completeness of the toxicological data base and the nature of the potential adverse effects.

The most common safety factor is 100 which takes into account that humans may be 10 times more sensitive to the chemical than experimental animals and that a proportion of the population may be 10 times more sensitive than the average person. Where there is satisfactory information in humans, there is no necessity to extrapolate from animal data and a safety factor of 10 is considered adequate to account for inter-individual variation. On the other hand when the toxicity data base is incomplete or when the nature of the potential hazards indicate the need for additional caution, a further safety factor of 10 to 20 may be incorporated. In these situations, the overall NOEL is divided by a safety factor of 1000 to 2000 in determining the ADI.

It is important to note that the toxicological studies on which the overall NOEL is based are invariably carried out by oral dosing of animals and usually by incorporation of the chemical in the diet. The subsequent establishment of an ADI is thus directed to human exposure by the oral route. Due to possible differences in absorption and other kinetic and metabolic parameters, the comparison of intakes by other routes with the ADI should be interpreted with caution.

Notes

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  1. Use of the terms JMPR or JECFA in the NOEL column indicates that the Australian ADI has been adopted from the figure established by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) or the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).
  2. (H) indicates that the NOEL was determined on the basis of experimental data in humans.
  3. The words "not necessary" in the ADI column indicates that there is a large margin of safety for consumption of residues in food when the chemical is used according to good agricultural/veterinary practice. Due to low levels of residues and the lack of oral activity of these chemicals, a numerical ADI is not considered necessary.
  4. (M) indicates that the ADI is derived from microbiological data.
  5. TDI means Tolerable Daily Intake. ADIs are not maintained for those agricultural and veterinary chemicals that are no longer permitted for use in agricultural practice. However, residues of certain environmentally persistent pesticides may occur as residues in agricultural commodities as a consequence of past use. In these cases, health intake values are maintained as Tolerable Daily Intake values, to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary intakes of these environmentally persistent chemicals can be compared.
  6. 'Deleted' means that an ADI had previously been established but that the chemical is no longer permitted for use on food-producing crops or animals. (For certain environmentally-persistent chemicals which are no longer used in agriculture, see note 5 re TDI values.)
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Chemical ADI
(mg/kg bw)
NOEL
(mg/kg bw)
Date Set Study Comments
a          
Abamectin 0.0005 0.5 10 Nov 1999 3-week rabbit developmental study; based on teratogenicity at the next highest dose of 1 mg/kg bw/d. 1000 fold safety factor justified as the foetal abnormalities produced may represent an acute toxic effect.
Acephate 0.003 0.22 10 Feb 1988    
Acetamiprid 0.1 9 27 Jul 2001 2-year dietary study in rats; based on reductions in bodyweight gain and food consumption, and increased incidence of hepatocellular hypertrophy and vacuolation at the next highest dose  
Acetyl isovaleryltylosin tartrate 0.0001 0.031 (MIC50) 21 Aug 2006 A microbiological ADI of 0.0001 mg/kg bw/d was established for acetyl isovaleryltylosin tartrate, based on a MIC50 of 0.031 mcg/ml in the most sensitive bacterial genus, (Bifidobacterium) found in the human GI tract. A toxicological ADI of 0.05 mg/kg bw/d was based on a NOEL of 47 mg/kg bw/d in a 3-month mouse dietary study and a safety factor of 1,000.
Acibenzolar-S-methyl 0.005 5 [LOEL] 23 Apr 2002 12-month chronic oral toxicity study in dogs; based on haematological changes associated with anaemia seen at a LOEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d.  
Acifluorfen 0.01 1 15 Sep 1999 Based on a 2 year dietary study in mice using a NOEL of 1 mg/kg/bw/d and a 2 year dietary study in rats using a NOEL of 1.2 mg/kg/bw/d and incorporating a 100-fold safety factor.    
Acinitrazole 0.005 10 18 Mar 1976    
Acrolein 0.0005 0.05 15 Mar 1994 24-month rat gavage study; based on mortality and serum biochemical effects at the next highest dose of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d.  
Alachlor 0.0005 0.5 3 May 1985    
Albendazole 0.05 5 9 Aug 1994 Based on a rabbit developmental study and a subchronic dog study using a 100-fold safety factor.  
Aldicarb 0.001 0.01 (H) 15 Dec 1999 Single dose human study; based on plasma and erythrocyte ChE inhibition at the next highest dose of 0.025 mg/kg bw.  
Aldoxycarb 0.001 1.8 1 Aug 1985    
Aldrin 0.0001 (TDI) JMPR'94 21 Oct 2003   Tolerable daily intake. Traditional ADI not maintained as aldrin is no longer used in agricultural practice and does not have industrial sponsors. Numerical tox. end-point maintained to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary intakes can be compared.
Aliphatic alcohol ethoxylates 0.01 20 15 Aug 1979    
Alloxydim-sodium 0.05 5 14 Aug 1980    
Alpha-cypermethrin 0.05 4.7 11 Mar 1994 13-week dog study; a NOEL of 90 ppm (4.7 mg/kg bw/d) was based on ataxia, body tremors, agitation and abnormal gait at the next highest dose of 270 ppm.  
Alpha-trenbolone 0.0001 0.01 10 Feb 1988    
Altrenogest 0.000002 0.004 13 Aug 1992    
Ametoctradin 10 1000 1 Feb 2012 The ADI for ametoctradin is established at 10 mg/kg bw/d based on the overall lack of adverse toxicological effects of ametoctradin across the repeat-dose toxicology dataset at close to or above the limit-dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/d, and using a 100-fold safety factor.  
Ametryn 0.02 2 17 Nov 1989    
Amicarbazone 0.02 2 9 Jun 2006    
Aminocarb 0.02 2 10 Feb 1969    
Aminoethoxyvinylglycine 0.0002 0.2 28 Sep 2000 90-day rat dietary study; based on a reduction in blood AST levels at the next highest dose of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d. A subchronic study was used in the absence of a chronic study, hence a conservative safety factor is warranted.
Aminopyralid 0.3 (incoordination in rabbits) 26 28 Sep 2005 Based on a developmental toxicity study in rabbits using a 100-fold safety factor  
Amitraz 0.002 0.25 5 Nov 1986    
Amitrole 0.0003 0.025 3 May 1984    
Amoxycillin 0.2 200 8 Mar 1995    
Apramycin 0.05 5 29 May 1986    
Ardacin 0.05 100 1 Dec 1988    
Arprinocid 0.002 4 10 Nov 1977    
Asulam 0.02 40 5 Dec 1985    
Atrazine 0.005 0.5 Dec 1996 Rat 2-year dietary study; NOEL of 10 ppm (0.5 mg/kg bw/d), based on mammary tumours in female rats. The LOEL in this study was 70 ppm (2.8 mg/kg bw/d). OCSEH (1996) Review of Atrazine and its metabolites. Toxicity study author is Mayhew, (1986).
Avilamycin 1 108 19 Dec 1997 24-month rat dietary study; based on absence of toxicity effects at the highest dose of 3000 ppm (108 mg/kg bw/d).  
Azaconazole 0.025 2.5 2 Jun 1988    
Azadirachtin not established   28 May 2004   ADI not established; due to insufficient information.
Azafenidin 0.0004 0.04 4 Jul 2001 3-month dog study; based on porphyrin and pigment accumulation in the liver and other liver toxicity.  
Azamethiphos 0.003 0.25 29 May 1996 52-week dog dietary study; a NOEL of 10 ppm (0.25 mg/kg bw/d) was based on inhibition of plasma, RBC and brain ChE activity at the next highest dose of 100 ppm.  
Azaperone 0.1 10 5 Aug 1983    
Azimsulfuron 0.2 18 9 Sep 2002 12-month dietary study in male dogs; based on reduced bodyweight gain and increased pigment deposition at the next highest dose of 3000 ppm (the highest dose  
Azinphos-ethyl 0.002 0.02 (H) 21 Jun 1991    
Azinphos-methyl 0.025 0.25 (H) 26 Aug 2002 28-day repeat-dose human study; based on no inhibition of plasma or RBC ChE (or any other related effects) in males at 0.25 mg/kg bw/d, the only dose tested.  
Azocyclotin 0.003 0.25 10 Jun 1987    
Azoxystrobin 0.1 10 29 Sep 1998 3-month oral dosing dog study; based on reduced body weights and increased salivation and gastrointestinal abnormalities at the next highest dose of 50 mg/kg/d.  
b          
Bacillus thuringiensis not necessary   6 Sep 2002   ADI not necessary [compound is a naturally occurring organism and residues from its use on sheep are likely to be indistinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism].
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis serotype 1 (strain MPPL 002) not necessary   28 Aug 2003   ADI not necessary; compound is a naturally occurring organism and residues from its use on sheep are likely to be indistinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.
Bacitracin 0.1 10 26 May 1997 Rat developmental rat study; a NOEL of 75 mg/kg bw/d Albac (10 mg/kg bw/d bacitracin) was based on increased salivation and reduced body weight gain at the next highest dose of 225 mg/kg bw/d. Safety factor of 100 deemed appropriate due to the poor gastrointestinal absorption of bacitracin.
Bambermycin 0.3 29 14 Sep 2001 2-year chronic study in rats. Previously named:flavophospholipol
Benalaxyl 0.05 5 1 Dec 1988    
Bendiocarb 0.004 0.4 8 Jun 1993 Rat reproduction study; based on reduced maternal weight gain at the next highest dose of 2 mg/kg  
Benfluralin 0.05 5 18 Feb 1987    
Benfuresate 0.01 20 10 Sep 1987    
Benomyl 0.02 2.5 12 Feb 2003 2-year dog study; based on an increase in testicular degeneration at the next highest dose of 12.5 mg/kg bw/d.  
Bensulfuron-methyl 0.02 2.5 10 Sep 1987    
Bensulide 0.04 4 4 Feb 1982    
Bentazone 0.1 10 1988 2-year dietary study in rats. Based on a NOEL of 350 ppm (10 mg/kg bw/d) for decreased food consumption, associated decreased body weight gain and altered absolute and relative kidney, brain, heart, liver and spleen weights.  
Benzofenap 0.004 0.4 27 Mar 1998 2-generation rat reproduction study; A NOEL of 5 ppm (0.4 mg/kg bw/d) was based on reduced pup survival at the next highest dose of 20 ppm.  
Benzyl G Penicillin 0.03 mg/person/d JECFA'90(H) 28 Feb 1990    
6-Benzyladenine 0.02 30 15 Aug 1979    
Beta-cyfluthrin 0.01 1.5 5 Dec 1990 13-week dog dietary study; a NOEL of 60 ppm (1.5 mg/kg bw/d) was based on vomiting, diarrhoea and effects on motor function at the next highest dose of 360 ppm.  
Beta-cypermethrin 0.05 5 19 Mar 2002 2-year rat study; based on a NOEL for cypermethrin. The 2-year rat study used for establishing the cypermethrin ADI was considered appropriate to use for the beta-cypermethrin ADI as all the isomers contained in beta-cypermethrin are contained in cypermethrin.
beta-Trenbolone 0.00001 0.001 10 Feb 1988    
Bifenazate 0.01 1 12 Dec 2002 Rat 2-year dietary study, and a 52- week dietary study in dogs; based on a decreased bodyweight gain in the rat study at the next highest dose of 4.8 mg/kg bw/d; and decreased bodyweight gain, haematological and clinical chemistry effects, urine changes, organ weight changes and histopathological effects in the dog study at the next highest dose of 8.95 mg/kg bw/d.  
Bifenthrin 0.01 1 26 Nov 1992 Developmental rat gavage study; based on maternal tremors at the next highest dose of 2 mg/kg  
Binapacryl 0.002 0.25 3 Aug 1984    
Bioresmethrin 0.03 3 20 Jun 1991 2-year rat dietary study; based on hepatotoxicity at the next highest level of 15 mg/kg bw/d.  
Bitertanol 0.01 1 15 Nov 1982    
Boscalid 0.06 6 15 Aug 2003 Rat carcinogenicity and chronic 2- year dietary studies; based on NOELs of 100 ppm (equivalent to 6 mg/kg/d) due to clinical signs at the next highest dose of 500 ppm.  
Brodifacoum 0.0000005 0.001 16 May 1990    
Bromacil 0.1 10 10 Feb 1988    
Bromadiolone 0.000002 0.004 18 Jan 1994 Rabbit developmental study; a NOEL of 4 ug/kg bw/d (0.004 mg/kg bw/d) was based on maternotoxicity, increased resorptions and reduced foetal weight at the next highest dose of 8  
Bromide 1 JMPR'88 30 Sep 1988    
Bromophos-ethyl 0.004 0.4 18 Feb 1987    
Bromopropylate 0.03 2.8 31 May 1994 12-month dog dietary study; a NOEL of 100 ppm (2.8 mg/kg bw/d) was based on decreased body weight gain in females at the next highest dose of 400 ppm.  
Bromoxynil 0.003 0.3 19 Feb 1993 1-year dog study; based on reduced body weight gain at the next highest dose of 1.5 mg/kg bw/d.  
Bromsalans 0.007 15 12 Aug 1970    
Bromuconazole 0.02 2 17 Jun 1994 2-year rat dietary study; a NOEL of 20 ppm (2 mg/kg bw/d) was based on pathological effects in the liver at the next highest dose of 150 ppm.  
Brotianide 0.0008 1.7 9 Aug 1972    

Bupirimate

Bupivacaine

0.05

0.001

5

1.0

7 Jun 1978

10 June 2008

Iv infusion of a dose of 75 mg bupivacaine salt over 10 minutes to volunteers resulted in mean arterial plasma concentrations of approximately 5 g base/mL; no signs of toxicity were recorded (Tucker and Mather, 1975). Therefore in the absence of adequate repeat dose toxicity studies, an ADI of 0.001 mg/kg bw was established using a LOEL of 1 mg/kg bw, and applying a 1000-fold safety factor. The 1000-fold safety factor represents uncertainties associated with the use of a LOEL (10-fold), intraspecies variation (10-fold), and an inadequate toxicological database (10-fold).
Buprofezin 0.01 1 18 Jan 2000 2-year rat study and a rat two generation reproduction study; based on NOELs of 1 and 0.9 mg/kg bw/d respectively.  
Butacarb 0.2 20 7 Dec 1972    
Butachlor 0.005 10 7 Dec 1972    
Butafenacil 0.004 0.36 12 Apr 2001 18-month mouse carcinogenicity study; based on a NOEL of 0.36 mg/kg bw in males.  
Buthidazole 0.008 15.8 7 Jun 1978    
Butralin 0.2 15 14 Aug 1992 Developmental gavage rabbit study; based on maternal toxicity (reduced body weight gain) and foetal defects at the next highest dose of 45 mg/kg bw/d.  
Butroxydim 0.005 0.5 18 Jan 1993 1-year dietary dog study; based on organ weight changes and increased alkaline phosphatase levels at the next highest dose of 5 mg/kg bw/d.  
c          
Cadusafos 0.00001 0.001 13 Aug 1992 1-year oral dog study; a NOEL of 1 ug/kg bw/d (0.001 mg/kg bw/d) was based on plasma CHE inhibition in females at the next highest dose of 5 ug/kg bw/d.  
Captan 0.1 10 5 Feb 1997 Rabbit reproduction study; based on increased incidence of cysts on the liver and an increase in the number of skeletal variations at the next highest dose of 30 mg/kg  
Carbaryl 0.008 16 [LOEL] 13 Dec 2002 2-year mouse dietary study; based on vascular tumour formation at the LOEL of 16 mg/kg bw/d (100 ppm).  
Carbendazim 0.03 2.5 9 May 1979    
Carbendazole 0.1 10 11 Nov 1976    
Carbetamide 0.03 3 30 Aug 1991    
Carbofuran 0.003 0.33 10 Sep 1987    
Carbophenothion 0.0002 0.02 12 Aug 1970    
Carbosulfan 0.01 1 17 Jan 1997 2-year rat dietary study; a NOEL of 20 ppm (1 mg/kg bw) was based on clinical signs, iris atrophy and cholinesterase inhibition at the next highest dose of 500 ppm.  
Carboxin 0.08 8.5 18 Feb 1987    
Carfentrazone ethyl 0.03 3 3 Aug 1998 2-year rat dietary study; a NOEL of 50 ppm (3 mg/kg/d) was based on red fluorescence seen in the female liver at the next highest dose of 200 ppm.  
Carprofen 0.005 1 4 Sep 1997 2-year rat dietary rat study; based on nephrotoxicity and gastro-intestinal tract ulceration at the next highest dose of 3 mg/kg/d.  
Ceftiofur sodium 0.03 30 18 Jan 1993 90-day oral dog study; based on clinical signs, reduction in platelet counts in female (thrombocytopenia) at the next highest dose of 100 mg/kg bw/d. High safety factor due to lack of chronic studies.
Cefuroxime sodium 0.4 400 12 Aug 1996 27-week gavage dog study; based on anaemia, reduced plasma cholesterol, and increased triglycerides at the next highest dose  
Cephalexin 0.01 (M) 22 Nov 2000   The limited toxicology data were not sufficient to allow establishment of a toxicological ADI. A microbiological ADI of 0.01 mg/kg bw/d for cephalexin based on the use of the JECFA formulation was established.
Cephalonium 0.02 39 11 Jul 1996 13-week rat study; a NOEL of 500 ppm (39 mg/kg bw/d) was based on elevated kidney weights at the next highest dose of 5000 ppm. High safety factor chosen to reflect absence of chronic and reproduction toxicity studies.

Cephapirin

Cetrimide

0.02

0.01

20

25

5 Sep 1997

10 June 2008

13-week oral dog study; based on vomiting and increased weight gain at the LOEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d.

In a repeat dose study in which cetrimide was administered to rats at concentrations of 0, 25 and 50 mg/kg bw/d for 21 days, there was a dose-related reduction in body weight gain and food consumption (EMEA, 1996). An ADI of 0.01 mg/kg bw/d cetrimide was established using a LOEL of 25 mg/kg bw/d and applying a 2000-fold safety factor.

High safety factor due to use of a LOEL and the absence of chronic/oncogenicity studies.

The 2000-fold safety factor represents the uncertainty associated with using a LOEL, inter- and intra-species extrapolation and the limited database. In establishing this ADI, it was taken into account that cetrimide has been used extensively in humans for topical use, and has been associated with an extremely low number of adverse reactions.

Chloraniformethan 0.03 2.5 14 Nov 1974    
Chlorantraniliprole 1.58 158 9 May 2008 In the chronic mouse study, the dosing levels were: 0, 2.6/3.34, 9.20/11.6, 26.1/32.9, 158/196 or 935/1155 mg/kg bw/d (males/females). In both sexes, absolute and relative liver weights were statistically significantly increased (6-19%) at the two top doses. In males, the incidence of centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy was also increased relative to controls, in a statistically significant manner at the two highest doses. These otherwise adaptive effects support the findings of eosinophilic foci at the high dose in male mice. In males, eosinophilic foci of cellular alteration, were present in 0/70, 1/70, 1/70, 0/70, 1/70 and 5/70 mice given 0, 2.60, 9.20, 26.1, 158 or 935 mg/kg bw/d. The eosinophilic foci are not considered an adaptive response because they are not reversible nor are they commonly associated with a normal liver response to xenobiotics (historical control range 0-1.92%) for Crl:CD-1 (ICR) mice). A LOEL of toxicological significance is established at 935 mg/kg bw/d for male mice based on eosinophilic foci of cellular alteration accompanied by hepatocellular hypertrophy and increased liver weight. The NOEL in the study is thus 158 mg/kg bw/d.
Chlordane 0.0005 (TDI) JMPR'94 21 Oct 2003   Tolerable daily intake. Use of chlordane in food-producing animals has been withdrawn. Therefore, an ADI for this compound is not necessary.
Chlordimeform 0.003 0.3 10 Sep 1987    
Chlorfenapyr 0.02 2.1 22 Aug 1995 12-month dog dietary study; based on elevated creatine levels at the next highest dose of 4 mg/kg bw/d.  
Chlorfenvinphos 0.0005 0.05 29 Oct 1998 4-week, 2-year dietary study and 2- generation reproduction studies in rats; based on plasma and/or brain ChE inhibition.  
Chlorfluazuron 0.005 0.56 12 Nov 1987    
Chlorhexidine 0.2 25 14 Feb 1985    
Chloridazon 0.04 4.1 2 Dec 1988    
Chlormequat 0.07 7.5 30 Aug 1991 2-year dog dietary study; a NOEL of 300 ppm (7.5 mg/kg bw/d) was based on excessive salivation and muscle weakness at the next highest dose of 1000 ppm.  
Chlornidine 0.002 5 9 Aug 1972    
Chloromethiuron 0.004 0.4 10 Sep 1987    
Chloropicrin 0.001 0.1 16 Jan 2014 1-year dog oral (gelatin capsule) study based on emesis in both sexes at 1.0 mg/kg bw/d and 2-year SD rat oral (gavage) carcinogenicity study based on hyperkeratosis in the nonglandular stomach in both sexes and decreased body weight and body weight gain in males at 1.0 mg/kg bw/d.  
Chlorothalonil 0.01 1.5 14 Feb 1991    
Chloroxuron 0.004 0.4 14 Feb 1992    
Chlorpropham 0.05 5 16 Jul 1996 60-week dog dietary dog study; based on altered thyroid function at the next highest dose of 51  
Chlorpyrifos 0.003 0.03 (H) 17 Dec 1998 28-day human volunteer study; based on plasma ChE inhibition.  
Chlorpyrifos-methyl 0.01 0.1 10 Feb 1988    
Chlorsulfuron 0.05 5 5 Aug 1982    
Chlortetracycline 0.003 0.03(H) 15 May 1995 7-day human oral study: a NOEL of 2 mg/adult/day (0.03 mg/kg bw/d) was based on the elimination of oxytetracycline susceptible strains of intestinal microflora at the next highest dose of 20 mg/adult/day. The NOEL of oxytetracycline has been applied to chlortetracycline due to similarities in structure and microbiological potency.
Chlorthal-dimethyl 0.01 1 29 Apr 1994    
Chlorthiophos 0.0002 0.02 7 Jun 1978    
Cinmethylin 0.01 11 [LOEL] 20 Aug 2003 Rat reproduction study; based on a LOEL of 11 mg/kg/d in adults due to the increased incidence of parenchymal hepatocellular vacuolation in female livers at all treatment levels. The LOEL was considered appropriate, as the figure is lower than the lowest clear NOEL of 3 mg/kg/d in a rabbit developmental study, with a safety factor of 100.
Clavulanic acid 0.01 10 8 Mar 1995 6-month gavage dog study; based on liver toxicity at the next highest dose of 20 mg/kg bw/d. High safety factor due to incomplete database; no chronic studies
Clenpyrin 0.003 5 7 Dec 1971    
Clethodim 0.01 1 20 Jun 1991    
Clodinafop-propargyl 0.004 0.37 28 Apr 1994 3-month dietary dog study; a NOEL of 10 ppm (0.37 mg/kg bw/d) was based on skin lesions and disturbances of the serum protein electrophoretic pattern at the next highest dose of 50 ppm.  
Clofentezine 0.02 2 11 Sep 1986    
Clomazone 0.1 14 19 Dec 1997 12-month dog dietary study; a NOEL of 500 ppm (14 mg/kg bw/d) was based on increased absolute and relative liver weights at the next highest dose of 2500 ppm.  
Cloprostenol 0.0005 0.05 11 Nov 1975    
Clopyralid 0.5 50 12 Nov 1982    
Cloquintocet-mexyl 0.04 4 28 Apr 1994    
Clorsulon 0.02 2.0 11 Jun 1993 Single generation rat reproduction gavage study. The LOEL was increased gestation length at 20 mg/kg bw. OCSEH (1993, #9426). Toxicity study authors are Robertson et al., (1975).

This ADI value was previously set in 1993, but changed to 0.001 mg/kg bw/d in 2007 on the basis of an EMEA report (1999, #590/99) stating a LOEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d from a 52-week study in rats. Alkaline diuresis was the LOEL effect at this dose. EMEA (2008, #358525) stated that the study used a related substance rather than clorsulon itself, and retracted its conclusions on the study. The ADI value from 1993 was therefore re-established.

Closantel 0.025 2.5 12 Nov 1981    
Clothianidin 0.05 9.7 [LOEL] 1 Aug 2003 Rat 2-year feeding study; based on a LOEL of 9.7 mg/kg bw/d, with a safety factor of 200 warranted, as the incidence of the effect in the ovaries was only slightly higher than the historical control range. A NOEL was not established due to interstitial cell hyperplasia observed in the ovaries in all treated groups.
Cloxacillin 0.2 500 28 Jun 2001 12-week rat oral study; based on absence of haematological, biochemical, histological organ weight abnormalities at the highest dose of 500 mg/kg bw. High safety factor due to limited toxicology information.
Cloxylacon 0.002 4.1 11 May 1989    
N-coco-1,3-diaminopropane not necessary   10 Dec 2003   ADI not necessary [as it will not result in human exposure via the diet
Colistin sulphate 0.2 25 5 Dec 1990    
Copper 0.2   16 Jun 2005   This ADI is based on the upper safe limit for adults of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d recommended by FSANZ as a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake. Therefore there is no NOEL, LOEL or safety factor.
Copper pyrithione 0.005 0.5 2 Oct 2009 Based on a NOEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d in a 2 year rat chronic study with pyrithione sodium and using a 100-fold safety factor.  
Coumaphos 0.0005 0.05 7 Dec 1971    
Coumatetralyl 0.000003 0.0068 15 Sep 2000 16-week sub-chronic oral rat study. The safety factor was chosen due to the limited toxicology database.
           
Crotoxyphos 6e-005 0.12 7 Jun 1972    
Crufomate 0.1 JMPR'68 19 Aug 1974    
Cyanamide 0.002 0.2 14 Aug 1992    
Cyanatryn 0.05 5 6 Aug 1975    
Cyanazine 0.002 0.2 11 Sep 1986    
Cyantraniliprole 0.01 1 21 Jan 2013 12-month dietary study in the dog, based on a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg/bw/d for liver toxicity (clinical chemistry changes and increased organ weight) and using a default 100-fold safety factor.  
Cyazofamid 1.2 124 06 Jun 2013 18-month carcinogenicity study based on an increase in histopathological changes in the ovaries (hematocysts) and using a 100-fold safety factor.
Cyclanilide 0.01 2.5 17 Apr 1998 2-generation rat reproduction study; a NOEL of 30 ppm (2.5 mg/kg bw/d) was based on alterations in organ weight at the next highest dose of 300 ppm.  
Cyclodextrins deleted   21 Oct 2003   The need to establish ADIs to support short-term exposure to experimental pesticides resulting from their use under a permit approval had been largely overcome by the introduction of ARfD's. Hence there is no longer any justification to retain an ADI for cyclodextrins
Cycloprate 0.004 8 9 Feb 1977    
Cycloprothrin 0.01 1 29 May 1986    
Cycloxydim 0.06 6.4 17 May 1990    
Cyflufenamid 0.04 4.14 29 May 2012 The ADI for cyflufenamid was established at 0.04 mg/kg bw/d (rounding down), based on a NOEL of 4.14 mg/kg bw/d in male dogs for elevated alkaline phosphatase levels in a 52-week oral study and using a default 100-fold safety factor.  
Cyfluthrin 0.02 2.5 14 Feb 1985    
Cyhalofop-butyl 0.002 0.2 28 Jan 2005 2-year rat study; based on increased incidence of spots in the livers of females at 2.4 mg/kg bw/d.  
Cyhalothrin 0.02 1.5 14 Feb 1985    
Gamma-cyhalothrin 0.0005 0.5 12 Aug 2003 Rat developmental study; maternal NOEL based on decreased body weight gain and clinical signs at the next highest dose of 2 mg/kg bw/d.  
Cyhexatin 0.001 0.1 18 Jan 2000 Rat developmental study; based on decreased body weight gain at 0.5 mg/kg bw/d.  
Cymiazole 0.005 0.5 14 Feb 1985    
Cynmethylin 0.006 12 6 Feb 1986    
Cyometrinil 0.0005 1 5 May 1982    
Cypermethrin 0.05 5 10 Feb 1988    
Cyphenothrin 0.03 3 30 Aug 1991    
Cyproconazole 0.01 1 22 Feb 1990 12-month dog dietary study; a NOEL of 30 ppm (1 mg/kg bw/d) was based on hepatotoxicity at the next highest dose of 100 ppm.  
Cyprodinil 0.02 2.7 19 Aug 1994 2-year rat dietary study; a NOEL of 75 ppm (2.7 mg/kg bw/d) was based on increased incidence of liver lesions in males at the next highest dose of 1000 ppm.  
Cyromazine 0.02 1.8 8 Apr 1998 24-month dietary rat study; a NOEL of 30 ppm (1.8 mg/kg bw/d) was based on depressed weight gain at the next highest dose of 300 ppm.  
d          
Daminozide 0.7 75 11 Sep 1986    
Dazomet 0.0005 0.5 27 Nov 1996    
DDT 0.002 (TDI) 0.25 21 Oct 2003   Tolerable daily intake. Traditional ADI not maintained as DDT is no longer used in agricultural practice and does not have industrial sponsors. Numerical tox. end-point maintained to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary intakes can be compared.
Decoquinate 0.075 15 04 Jun 2013 12 week dog study based on subdued behaviour at 62.5 mg/kg bw/d. A safety factor of 200 was applied consisting of factors of 10 each for intraspecies and interspecies variation, plus an additional 2 for the database consisting largely of studies conducted prior to GLP and modern standards. ADI was originally set at 0.007 based on a NOEL of 15mg/kg bw/d and was established in 1969. Details on how this ADI was determined are not available.    
Deltamethrin 0.01 1 6 Nov 1980 Based on a chronic dog study using a 100 fold safety factor  
Demeton-S-methyl 0.0003 0.03 30 Aug 1991 12-month dog dietary study; a NOEL of 1ppm (0.036 mg/kg bw/d) was based on depressed CHE levels at the next highest dose of 10 ppm.  
Derquantel 0.0005 0.1 27 May 2011 The ADI for derquantel was established at 0.0005 mg/kg bw/d based on a LOEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d in a 90-day dog study and using a 200-fold safety factor.  
Dexamethasone 0.000015 JECFA'94 10 Aug 1994    
Diafenthiuron 0.003 0.3 5 Jan 1993 12-month oral dog study; based on reduced body weight gains at the next highest dose of 1.5 mg/kg Supported by a 24-month dietary rat study; a NOEL of 10 ppm (0.32 mg/kg bw/d) was based on increased urinary volume and testicular enlargement at the next highest dose of 30 ppm.
Dialifos 0.001 0.01 16 Jul 1978    
Diazinon 0.001 0.02 (H) 29 Apr 1999 37-43 Day human study; based on plasma ChE inhibition.  
Dicamba 0.03 3 20 Jun 1991 Developmental rabbit study; based on reduced maternal body weight gains at the next highest dose of 10 mg/kg bw/d.  
Dichlobenil 0.01 1.25 14 Aug 1992    
Dichlofluanid 0.03 2.7 29 May 1986    
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 0.01 1 23 Jun 2006 Two-year rat study; based on abnormal renal morphology at the next higher dose of 5 mg/kg bw/d. year dog study. The ADI was supported by the same NOELs (based on kidney effects) observed in a 2-year mouse and 1 year dog study
Dichlorprop 0.03 3.1 9 Jul 1998 13-week dog dietary study; a NOEL of 75 ppm (3.2 mg/kg bw/d) was based on changes in clinical chemistry and kidney discolouration at the next highest dose of 300 ppm.  
Dichlorprop-P 0.03 6 2 Nov 2006 18-month mice dietary study, based on an increased incidence of chronic nephropathy observed in male mice at the next highest dose and above (equal to or lower than 59 mg/kg bw/d).  
2,4-dichlorprop-P 0.03 6 8 Dec 2006 18-month mouse dietary study, based on an increased incidence of chronic nephropathy observed in male mice at the next highest dose and above (greater than of equal to 59 mg/kg bw/d.  
Dichlorvos 0.001 0.014 (H) 6 Apr 2004 28-day human study; based on plasma ChE inhibition at and above 0.021 mg/kg bw/d.  
Dichlozoline 0.001 2.5 7 Dec 1971    
Diclazuril 0.03 3 5 Dec 1990    
Diclobutrazol 0.03 2.5 3 Aug 1984    
Diclofop-methyl 0.002 0.25 6 Feb 1986    
Dicloran 0.07 7.5 (H) 16 May 1975    
Dicofol 0.001 0.12 5 Dec 1990    
Dicyclanil 0.007 0.7 14 Oct 2005 A 12-month dog dietary study, based on increased plasma cholesterol levels at 4.4 mg/kg plasma cholesterol in a 3-month dog dietary study. Increased cholesterol was reversible during recovery and was supported by consistent findings of increased plasma cholesterol in a 3-month dog dietary study
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride 0.01 1 25 Jun 1999 Developmental gavage study in rabbits; based on clinical signs observed at the next highest dose of 3 mg/kg/d.  
Dieldrin 0.0001 (TDI) JMPR'94 21 Oct 2003   Tolerable daily intake. Traditional ADI not maintained as dieldrin is no longer used in agricultural practice and does not have industrial sponsors. Numerical tox. end-point maintained to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary intakes can be compared.
Diethofencarb 0.004 7.25 12 Nov 1987    
Difenoconazole 0.01 1 5 Dec 1990    
Difethialone 0.0000006 0.00125 19 Jul 1993    
Diflubenzuron 0.02 2 14 Feb 1985    
Diflufenican 0.2 16.3 11 Aug 1988    
Dimethenamid-P 0.03 5 [LOEL] 12 Aug 2003 2-year dietary study in rats; based on a LOEL of 100 ppm / 5.1 mg/kg bw/d due to increased incidences of parathyroid hyperplasia at all dose levels. A NOEL was not established due to parathyroid hyperplasia at the lowest dose tested.
Dimethipin 0.02 2.5 2 Jun 1988    
Dimethirimol 0.2 18 22 Feb 1972    
Dimethoate 0.001 0.1 31 May 2012 Developmental toxicity study in rats based on a NOEL of 0.1mg/kg bw/d due to increased pup mortality at 0.5 mg/kg bw/d and using a default 100-fold safety factor.  
Dimethomorph 0.06 6 12 Jul 1996 2-generation rat reproduction study; a NOEL of 100 ppm (6 mg/kg bw/d) was based on reduced female weight gain at the next highest dose of 300 ppm.  
Dimetridazole deleted   3 Sep 2003    
Diniconazole 0.002 0.4 17 Aug 1989    
Dinitramine 0.1 15 9 May 1974    
Dinocap 0.001 0.5 15 Jan 1993    
Dinoprost 0.0005 1 17 Mar 1976    
Diofenolan 0.003 5.6 20 Jul 1995 12-month dog dietary study; a NOEL of 200 ppm (5.6 mg/kg bw/d) was based on decreased plasma bilirubin levels and increased plasma urea and creatine at the next highest dose of 1000 ppm. High safety factor due to lack of lifetime and reproduction studies.
Dioxathion deleted   21 Oct 2003   There is no justification to retain an ADI for dioxathion.
Diphacinone not necessary   4 Feb 2005   ADI not necessary; given the non- food use of the chemical.
Diphenamid 0.1 10 9 Aug 1973    
Diphenyl deleted   21 Oct 2003   There is no justification to retain an ADI for diphenyl.
Diphenylamine 0.02 1.5 2 Jun 1988    
Diquat 0.002 0.2 28 May 2002 2-year rat dietary study; based on lenticular cataract formation at and above 15 ppm.  
Disulfoton 0.001 0.01 1 Dec 1969    
Dithianon 0.007 0.66 2 Feb 1993    
Dithiopyr 0.005 0.5 13 Aug 1992    
Diuron 0.007 0.7 4 Feb 2005 6-month rat dietary study; based on reduced haemoglobin concentrations and increased reticulocytes at the next highest  
Dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid 0.25 25 9 Jul 1998 2-year dog dietary study, based on liver degeneration at the next highest dose of 125 mg/kg bw/d.  
Dodine 0.1 10 26 Nov 2002 52-week oral dog study; based on increased diarrhoea, reduced food intake and body weight loss at the next highest dose of 20 mg/kg  
Doramectin 0.001 0.1 14 Oct 2002 3-month gavage dog study; based on mydriasis exhibited at the next highest dose of 0.3 mg/kg/d.  
Doxycycline hyclate 0.005 10 7 Jun 1978    
2,2-DPA 0.2 15 17 Nov 1989    
DSMA 0.0005 0.5 10 Nov 1994    
e          
Efrotomycin 0.5 50 26 Sep 1989    
Emamectin 0.002 0.25 26 Feb 1999    
Endosulfan 0.006 0.6 16 May 1997 78-week dietary study in mice, 13- week dietary study in rats, 1-year dietary study in dogs, developmental study in rats.  
Endothal 0.03 3.75 5 Dec 1990    
Endrin 0.0002 (TDI) JMPR'94 21 Oct 2003   Tolerable daily intake. Traditional ADI not maintained as endrin is no longer used in agricultural practice and does not have industrial sponsors. Numerical tox. end-point maintained to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary intakes can be compared.
Enterococcus faecium not necessary   4 Sep 2002   ADI not necessary; not for use in the manufacture of food for human consumption.
Epoxiconazole 0.01 1 16 Apr 2002 12-month dog dietary study; based on the absence of treatment related effects at the highest dose of 40 ppm (1.1 mg/kg bw/d) weights at the next highest dose of 200 ppm. Supported by a 78-week dietary study in mice; a NOEL of 5 ppm (0.81 mg/kg bw/d) was based on reduced body weight gain and increased liver
Eprinomectin 0.005 1 13 Oct 1997 2-generation dietary reproduction rat study and 53-week gavage dog study; a NOEL of 6 ppm (1 mg/kg bw/d) was based on tremors in rat pups at the next highest dose of 18 ppm, and mydriasis and neuronal degeneration in the brain in dogs at the next highest dose of 2 mg/kg  
EPTC 0.09 9 12 Jan 1995 2-year oral rat study; based on clinical and pathological effects indicative of neuromuscular toxicity at the next highest dose of 18 mg/kg/d.  
Esbiothrin 0.03 3 15 Sep 1993    
Esfenvalerate 0.008 7.5 17 Mar 1993    
Etaconazole 0.05 5 3 Aug 1984    
Ethametsulfuron-methyl 0.2 21 17 Jan 2001 2-year rat feeding study. A NOEL of 500 ppm (21 mg/kg bw/d) was based on reduced serum sodium levels in both sexes and enlarged mammary glands in females at the next highest dose of 5000 ppm.  
1,2-Ethanediamine polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and N-methylmethanamine not necessary   9 Dec 2003   ADI not necessary; as it is not intended for use in food production.
Ethephon 0.02 0.17(H) 18 Feb 1987    
Ethion 0.001 0.1 10 Jun 1987    
Ethofumesate 0.3 30 11 Nov 1976    
Ethoprophos 0.0003 0.03 11 Aug 1988    
Ethoxyquin 0.001 2.5 [LOEL] 21 Feb 2000 Reproduction study in dogs; based on clinical signs and histological changes in the liver at the LOEL of 100 ppm (2.5 mg/kg bw/d). ADI is based on the 1998 JMPR evaluation but with the application of additional safety factors due to inadequate data and the lack of a clear NOEL in any suitable study.
Ethoxysulfuron 0.06 6.2 12 May 2004 3-month dietary dog study (1993); NOEL (200 ppm in the diet) based on thyroid follicular hyperplasia and increased thyroid weight at 14 mg/kg bw/d (400 ppm) in another 3-month dog dietary study (1991).  
Ethyl formate 3   26 Nov 2003 2 generation rat reproduction study. Rats dosed with 0.4% (approximately equivalent to 300-400 mg/kg bw/d) calcium formate in drinking water, with no treatment related findings resulting. findings related was considered No oral repeat dose studies were appropriate for setting an ADI. Formic acid is likely to produce toxic effects in humans, so the 2- generation reproduction study in rats where no treatment-related
Etofenprox 0.03 3.1 15 Dec 1993    
Etoxazole 0.04 4 17 Dec 2003 2-year rat study and a 12-month dog study, based on liver toxicity at the next highest dose of 16 mg/kg/d in male rats, and increased liver weights and hepatocellular swelling at the next highest dose of 23.5 mg/kg/d in male dogs. The NOELs for the rat and dog studies were 4 and 4.6 mg/kg/d, respectively (in males).
Etridiazole 0.03 3 30 Aug 1991    
Etrimfos 0.001 0.1 2 May 1985    
f          
Famphur 0.00002 0.0375 4 Mar 1975    
Febantel 0.02 2 15 Jul 1996 2-generation developmental rat study; a NOEL of 20 ppm (2 mg/kg bw/d) was based on changes in hepatic morphology in parental animals and pups at the next highest dose of 100 ppm.  
Fenamiphos 0.0001 0.014 7 Nov 2005 Inhibition of plasma ChE activity in a 2-year dog study at the next highest dose of 0.036 mg/kg bw/d Supported by a NOEL of 0.011 mg/kg bw/d for plasma ChE inhibition in a 6-month dog study.
Fenarimol 0.01 1 5 Dec 1990    
Fenazaflor 0.02 2.5 8 Dec 1970    
Fenbendazole 0.05 5 14 Feb 1991    
Fenbuconazole 0.006 0.6 2003 Based on a liver toxicity in a 12 month dog study and a 2-generation reproduction study in rats using a NOEL of 0.6 mg/kg bw/d and incorporating a 100-fold safety factor.  
Fenbutatin-oxide 0.01 1 10 Sep 1987    
Fenchlorphos deleted   21 Oct 2003   There is no justification to retain an ADI for fenchlorphos
Fenfuram 0.1 10 16 Jun 1986    
Fenhexamide 0.2 17.4 16 Dec 1998 12-month dog dietary study; a NOEL of 500 ppm (17.4 mg/kg bw/d) was based on increased adrenal weight parameters, the presence of intracytoplasmic vacuoles in the adrenal cortex, and alterations in RBC, Hb and Hct at the next highest dose of 3500 ppm.  
Fenitrothion 0.002 0.2 6 Nov 1997 Dog 1-year dietary study; based on plasma ChE inhibition. LOEL for erythrocyte ChE was 1.6 mg/kg bw/d.  
Fenoxaprop-ethyl 0.004 0.4 14 Feb 1991    
Fenoxycarb 0.05 5 29 Oct 1998 18-month mouse dietary mouse study; a NOEL of 50 ppm (5 mg/kg bw/d) was based on increased liver weight, increased incidence of pulmonary tumours and decreased body weight at the next highest dose of 500 ppm.  
Fenpiclonil 0.01 1.2 20 Jun 1991    
Fenpyroximate 0.005 0.5 24 May 1993    
Fensulfothion 0.003 0.025 15 Feb 1973    
Fentin deleted   21 Oct 2003   There is no justification to retain an ADI for fentin.
Fenvalerate 0.02 1.7 10 Jun 1987    
Fipronil 0.0002 0.02 27 Jun 1994 Chronic/carcinogenicity dietary study of fipronil in rats, based on clinical signs of neurotoxicity, increased thyroid weight, decreased T4 levels, and increased severity of progressive senile nephropathy at the next highest dose of 0.06 mg/kg This is a group value to cover fipronil, desulfinyl fipronil, fipronil suphide and fipronil sulphone.
Firocoxib not necessary   1 Sep 2004   ADI not necessary; not for use in food-producing animals.
Flamprop-methyl 0.001 0.125 29 Aug 1991    
Flavophospholipol 0.3   14 Sep 2001   see: Bambermycin
Flazasulfuron 0.013 1.3 26 Sep 2011 The ADI is established at 0.013 mg/kg bw/d, based on a NOEL of 1.3 mg/kg bw/d in a 2-year dietary study in rats using a default 100-fold safety factor. Large safety factor due to lack of chronic study.
Flocoumafen 0.000001 0.0014 20 Sep 1995 90-day repeat dose study in rats; a NOEL of 0.02 ppm (0.0014 mg/kg bw) was based on increased levels of serum cholesterol at the next highest dose of 0.05 ppm. Large safety factor due to lack of chronic study.
Flonicamid 0.025 2.5 7 Jun 2012 Rabbit developmental study; based on abnormal lung lobation and absent kidney and ureter in foetuses at the next highest dose of 7.5 mg/kg bw and using a 100-fold safety factor.
Florasulam 0.05 5 20 Dec 2007 1-year dietary study in dogs, based on histopathological findings in the kidneys in both sexes at the next highest dose of 50 mg/kg bw/d (Stebbins & Haut, 1997). This NOEL selection is supported by a shorter 3-month dietary study in dogs with the same endpoint and NOEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d (Stebbins, 1995). The effect of florasulam in mammals was an increased incidence and severity of a histopathological lesion classified as hypertrophy of type-A epithelial cells lining the collecting ducts of the kidney.
Florfenicol 0.001 1 3 Aug 2001 12-month oral dog study; based on increased liver weight and cystic epithelial hyperplasia of the gall bladder at the next highest dose of 3 mg/kg bw/d. High safety factor due to the absence of a NOEL in a two-year dietary rat study (LOEL 3 mg/kg
Fluazifop-butyl 0.003 0.3 5 Aug 1982    
Fluazinam 0.004 0.4 18 Jun 1993    
Fluazuron 0.04 4.27 14 Sep 1993    
Flubendiamide 0.01 mg/kg bw 1.0 14 Dec 2007 1-year rat study, based on hepatoxicity and microcytic anaemia at the nex highest dose of 2.4 mg/kg bw/d.

1 mg/kg bw/d = 20 ppm

2.4 mg/kg bw/d = 50 ppm

Fluchloralin 0.003 5.25 15 Nov 1973    
Flucythrinate 0.02 1.6 11 Mar 1994    
Fludioxonil 0.03 3.1 23 Apr 1997 2- year rat study and 52-week dog dietary study; a NOEL of 100 ppm (3.7 mg/kg bw/d in rats and 3.1 mg/kg bw/d in dogs) was based on clinical signs, discoloured urine and reduced body weight gain in rats and blue faeces, discoloured digestive tract and reduced body weight gain in dogs at the next highest dose of 1000 ppm  
Flufenoxuron 0.02 2.5 21 Jan 1997 12-month dog dietary study; a NOEL of 100 ppm (2.5 mg/kg bw/d) was based on haemolytic anaemia and microscopic liver pathology at the next highest dose of 500 ppm.  
Flugestone acetate 0.0001 0.2 19 Feb 1981    
Flumethrin 0.003 0.31 18 Oct 2001 2-generation rat reproduction study; a NOEL of 5 ppm (0.25 mg/kg bw/d in males, 0.31 mg/kg bw/d in females) was based on clinical signs, reduced food consumption and reduced body weight gain (parental effects) and decreased birth weight, pup survival and weight gain (reproductive effects) at the next highest dose of 50 ppm.  
Flumetsulam 1 100 14 Feb 1992    
Flumiclorac pentyl 0.30 32 8 Dec 2004 18-month study in mice; a NOEL of 300 ppm (32 mg/kg bw/d) was based on haematological changes, weight and histopathological changes in the liver in males 3000 ppm and  
Flumioxazin 0.003 3 12 Dec 2002 Developmental oral rat study; based on increased incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities at the next highest dose of 10 mg/kg High safety factor due to nature and irreversibility of treatment related effects.
Flunixin meglumine 0.006 0.6 29 Sep 2000 2-year oncogenicity study in mice; based on higher incidences of haematopoiesis in the liver and kidney at the next highest dose of 2 mg/kg bw/d.  
Fluometuron 0.02 2 16 Feb 1989    
Fluopyram 0.01 1.2 2015 2-year dietary combined carcinogenicity/chronic toxicity study in rats using a NOEL of 1.2 mg/kg/bw/d for effects seen on the liver, kidney, thyroid and eyes at the next highest dose and applying a 100 fold safety factor to account for both intra- and inter-species variation.
Flupropanate 0.002 5 10 Sep 1987    
Fluquinconazole 0.005 0.5 2 Jul 1997 2-year rat study and a 1-year dog study; a NOEL of 10 ppm (0.5 mg/kg bw/d) was based on mortality, elevated food and water consumption, reduced body weight gains and increased relative organ weights in rats at the next highest dose of 100 ppm, and clinical signs in dogs at the next highest dose of 15 mg/kg bw/d  
Fluroxypyr 0.2 20 6 Feb 1986    
Flusilazole 0.002 0.2 18 Feb 1987    
Flutolanil 0.02 2 16 Oct 2001 24-month rat dietary study; a NOEL of 40 ppm (2 mg/kg bw/d) was based on an increased albumin:globulin ratio in males, and reduced bilirubin and dilation of the sinusoid in the liver in females at the next highest dose of 200 ppm.  
Flutriafol 0.01 1 20 Jun 1991    
Fluvalinate 0.005 0.5 5 Nov 1986    
Fluxapyroxad 0.02 2.1 30 Jan 2012 The ADI for fluxapyroxad was established at 0.02 mg/kg bw/d based on a NOEL of 2.1 g/kg bw/d from a 2 year dietary study in rats and applying a default safety factor of 100 for potential inter-and intra-species variation.  
Fluxofenim 0.0005 1 9 Aug 1994    
Forchlorfenuron 0.07 7 15 Apr 2005 2-year rat study; A NOEL of 150 ppm (7 mg/kg bw) was based on macroscopic and microscopic lesions in the kidneys at the next highest dose of 2000 ppm.  
Formetanate 0.004 0.37 25 Oct 1993    
Formothion deleted   21 Oct 2003   There is no justification to retain an ADI for formothion.
Fosamine 0.01 25 2 Jun 1988    
Fosetyl aluminium 1 103 18 Feb 1987    
Furathiocarb 0.003 0.35 20 Jun 1991    
Furazolidone deleted   2 Dec 2003   Use of furazolidone in food- producing animals has been withdrawn. Therefore, an ADI for this compound is not necessary.
g          
Gentamicin 0.05 5 6 May 1983    
Gibberellic acid 5 550 13 Jan 1993    
Glufosinate 0.007 0.67 11 Aug 1988    
Glufosinate ammonium 0.02 2.1 28 Aug 2001 2 1/2 year rat dietary study; based on inhibition of glutamine synthetase activity in the liver and brain, and decreased glutathione levels in the liver and blood.  
Glyoxime 0.001 0.1 7 May 1981    
Glyphosate 0.3 30 14 Feb 1985    
Guazatine 0.006 0.625 25 Mar 1997 52-week dog dietary study; a NOEL of 25ppm (0.625 mg/kg bw/d) was based on reduced body weight gains and food consumption in females at the next highest dose of  
h          
Halauxifen-methyl 0.1 10 17 Sep 2014 90 day dietary study in rats based on increased Cyp1a1 gene expression and associated increased liver weights and cholesterol (females) and increased hepatocellular vacuolation (males) observed at 53.4/52.3 mg/kg bw/d (males/females) and using a 100 fold safety factor.
Halofuginone 0.0003 0.025 16 Jun 2006 The ADI was set from a rabbit development study in which the NOEL was 0.025 mg halofuginone base/kg bw/d. The LOEL, 0.075 mg halofuginone base/kg bw/d, was also the highest dose tested. Maternotoxic effects noted at this dose included: lowered body weight gain and food consumption, mortality and abortions. No direct consequences on the embryofoetal development were noted. The rabbit was the most sensitive species.
Halosulfuron-methyl 0.01 1 19 Nov 1993    
Haloxyfop 0.0003 0.03 12 Nov 1987    
Heptachlor 0.0005 (TDI) JMPR'94 21 Oct 2003   Tolerable daily intake. Traditional ADI not maintained as heptachlor is no longer used in agricultural practice and does not have industrial sponsors. Numerical tox. end-point maintained to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary intakes can be compared.
Hexaconazole 0.005 0.5 17 May 1990    
Hexaflumuron 0.02 2 31 Aug 2001    
Hexaflurate 0.01 25 16 May 1975    
Hexazinone 0.1 10 12 Nov 1987    
Hexythiazox 0.03 3 29 May 1986    
Hydroprene 0.5 50 28 Oct 1994    
i          
Imazalil 0.03 2.5 24 Jul 1997 12-month dog study; based on decreased body weights, and increased relative liver weights, serum AP and GGT levels at the next highest dose of 20 mg/kg bw/d.  
Imazamox 2.8 282 11 Mar 1999 1-year dog dietary study; a NOEL of 10,000 ppm (282 mg/kg bw/d) was based on elevated CPK at the next highest dose of 40,000 ppm.  
Imazapic 0.3 137 17 May 1996 1-year dog dietary study; a NOEL of 5000 ppm (137 mg/kg bw/d) was based on reduced haematocrit, haemoglobin and RBC levels at the next highest dose of 20,000 ppm.  
Imazapyr 2.5 250 2 Jun 1998 12-month dog dietary study; based on the absence of signs of toxicity at the highest dose of 10,000 ppm (250 mg/kg bw/d).  
Imazaquin 0.25 25 18 Feb 1987    
Imazethapyr 2.8 276 22 Feb 1990    
Imidacloprid 0.06 6 8 Feb 1993 Based on a 2-year rat dietary study for increased mineralisation in the colloid of thyroid follicles in male rats at the next highest dose of 17 mg/kg bw/d, and using a 100-fold safety factor.    
Imidocarb 0.05 5 16 Aug 1979    
Iminoctadine trialbesilate 0.004 0.4 22 Dec 2004 52-week dietary study in dogs; based on reduced epididymus weight and increased prostate weight in males, and an increased incidence of kidney histopathology in both sexes at the next highest dose of 0.9 mg/kg bw/d.  
Imiprothrin 0.05 5 30 Sep 1996 12-month oral dog study; based on increased salivation and liquid faeces and increased microscopic pathology in the liver, at the next highest dose of 50mg/kg bw/d.  
Indoxacarb 0.01 1 21 Aug 2006 1-year dog study (NOEL = 1.1 mg/kg bw/d) bw/d) and (2) Two-generation rat dietary study (NOEL = 1.25 mg/kg bw/d). Also supported by; (1) 2-year rat dietary study (NOEL = 1.04 mg/kg bw/d) and (2) Two-generation rat dietary study (NOEL = 1.25 mg/kg bw/d).
Iodofenphos 0.0002 0.34 9 May 1974    
Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 0.03 3 29 Sep 2000 2-year rat dietary study; a NOEL of 70 ppm (3 mg/kg bw/d) was based on reduced bodyweight gains at the next highest dose of 700 ppm.  
Ioxynil 0.004 0.04 18 Feb 1987    
Ipconazole 0.015 1.5 18 Jan 2010 Based on a NOEL of 1.5 mg/kg bw/d in a 1-year chronic toxicity study in the most sensitive species, the dog, and using a 100-fold safety factor.  
Iprodione 0.04 4 16 Jun 1986    
Isocarbophos 0.0002 0.03 16 May 1975    
Isoeugenol 0.2 500 20 Aug 1996 16-week dietary rat study; based on the absence of signs of toxicity at the highest dose of 10000 ppm (500 mg/kg bw/d). High safety factor due to lack of developmental and reproductive studies, lack of direct data, and the inadequacy of the study from which the NOEL must be set.
Isofenphos 0.0005 0.05 10 Feb 1988    
Isoxaben 0.05 5 9 Aug 1995 2-year dietary rat study; based on renal pathology at the next highest dose of 51 mg/kg bw/d.  
Isoxaflutole 0.02 2 6 May 1997 2-year rat dietary study; based on histological alterations of the liver, nerves and skeletal muscle, and cornea effects at the next highest dose of 20 mg/kg/d. Supported by a 2-generation rat reproduction study; a NOEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d for maternal and pup toxicity was based on increased liver weights and altered liver histology, and reduced pup viability at the next highest dose of 200 mg/kg bw/d.
Ivermectin 0.001 0.1 16 Oct 1998 Mouse developmental study; based on maternotoxicity at the next highest dose of 0.2 mg/kg bw.  
k          
Ketoprofen 0.001 0.1 8 Dec 2000    
Kitasamycin 0.5 1000 22 Mar 1979    
Krenite 0.5 1000 5 Aug 1976    
Kresoxim-methyl 0.4 36 25 Jun 1999 24-month oral rat study; a NOEL of 800 ppm (36 mg/kg bw/d) was based on lower body weight, increased liver weight, elevated enzyme activity and liver changes at the next highest dose of 8000 ppm.  
l          
Lactobacillus acidophilus not necessary     4 Sep 2002 ADI not necessary.
Lactobacillus brevis not necessary     4 Sep 2002 ADI not necessary.
Lactobacillus casei not necessary     4 Sep 2002 ADI not necessary.
Lactobacillus plantarum not necessary     4 Sep 2002 ADI not necessary.
Laidlomycin 0.001 2 2 Dec 1988    
Lambdacyhalothrin 0.001 0.1 5 Dec 1990    
Lasalocid 0.001 2 9 Feb 1977    
Lenacil 0.13 12.5 7 Dec 1972    
Leptophos 0.005 0.5 7 Dec 1972    
Levamisole 0.003 6 14 Nov 1974 Based on a NOEL of 6 mg/kg bw/d in a 3-month dog study and using a 2000-fold safety factor.  

Lignocaine

Lincomycin

0.009

1

8.57

100

10 June 2008

5 Aug 1983

In human cardiac treatment, doses of 1-10 mg/kg are used. If 1 mg/kg bw is taken as a dose without adverse effects, and 35% bioavailability is assumed via the oral route, the corresponding oral dose can be estimated to be 3/0.35 =8.57 mg/kg bw. An ADI of 0.009 mg/kg bw was derived by applying a 1000-fold safety factor. A 1000-fold safety factor was applied to the LOEL, taking into account that 8.57 mg/kg bw represents a LOEL at the low end of the therapeutic range (10-fold), intraspecies variability (10-fold) and uncertainties due to an inadequate toxicological database (10-fold).
Lindane 0.003 0.31 5 Nov 1986    
Linuron 0.01 1.25 11 Sep 1986    
Lufenuron 0.02 2.1 4 Mar 1994    
Lysocellin sodium 0.002 3 14 Feb 1992    

m

         
Maduramicin 0.001 0.1 5 Nov 1986    
Maldison 0.02 2 12 Apr 2005 2-year rat study; based on inhibition of RBC cholinesterase activity at higher doses. The LOEL in the rat study was 29 mg/kg bw/d.
Maleic hydrazide 5 571 5 Jan 1993    
Mancozeb 0.006 0.6 27 Nov 1992 Based on a NOEL of 0.6 mg/kg bw/d from a 2-year dietary study in dogs, and a 100-fold safety factor.  
Mandipropamid 0.05 5.0 9 Apr 2010 Based on a NOEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d in a 12-month dog study, and using a 100-fold safety factor.  
MCPA 0.01 1.1 28 Apr 1994    
MCPB 0.01 1.1 12 May 1994    
Mebendazole 0.08 8 14 Feb 1975    
Mecoprop 0.01 1 3 Jul 1998    
Mecoprop-P 0.04 4 17 Jan 2001 18-month dietary study in mice. A NOEL of 25 ppm (4 mg/kg bw/d) was based on increased kidney weights and chronic nephropathy in females at the next highest dose of 250 ppm.  
Mefenpyr-diethyl 0.03 2.8 13 May 1997 87-week oral mouse study; a NOEL of 20 ppm (2.8 mg/kg/d) was based on hepatocellular hypertrophy in males at the next highest dose of 100 ppm.  
Mefluidide 0.25 25 1 Dec 1988    
Melengestrol acetate 0.00005 0.005 6 Jan 2000 Chronic oral study in monkeys. A hormonal NOEL of 5 ug/kg bw/d (0.005 mg/kg bw/d) was based on changes in hormonal and menstrual cycle variables at the next highest dose of 10 ug/kg bw/d.  
Meloxicam 0.0001 0.125 [LOEL] 5 Feb 1999 Gavage rat peri- and postnatal study; based on clinical signs, longer gestation and partuition, and decrease in the number of live pups and pup viability at the LOEL of 0.125 mg/kg bw from day 17 of gestation to day 21 of lactation. High safety factor due to use of LOEL.
Mepiquat 0.15 15 30 Aug 1991    
Mesosulfuron-methyl 1 100 27 May 2002    
Mesotrione 0.01 1.8 22 Sep 2011 The ADI for mesotrione was established at 0.01 mg/kg bw/d based on a NOEL of 1.8 mg/kg bw/d in a 80-week dietary study in CD-1 mice, using a refined 200-fold safety factor consisting of safety factors of 10 for each of intraspecies and interspecies variation, and a safety factor of 2 intended for the further protection of children and infants.  
Metalaxyl 0.03 3 7 May 1981 The ADI for metalaxyl was established at 0.03 mg/kg/d based on a NOEL of 3.0 mg/kg bw/d in a 2-year dietary study in rats using a 100-fold safety factor. Increased liver weights were observed at the next highest dose of 8 mg/kg bw/d.  
Metaldehyde 0.005 5 11 Sep 1986    
Metarhizium Anisopliae var. Acridum (isolate FI-985) not established   4 Sep 2003   ADI not established; due to inadequate data.
Methabenzthiazuron 0.004 7.5 22 Jul 1969    
Methacrifos 0.007 0.07 10 Jun 1987    
Methamidophos 0.0003 0.03 30 Jan 2004 Rat 8-week dietary study; based on plasma, erythrocyte and brain ChE inhibition at the next highest dose of 0.06 mg/kg bw/d.  
Methazole 0.0004 0.75 10 Feb 1988    
Methfuroxam 0.002 3 10 Nov 1977    
Methidathion 0.002 0.16 31 May 2004 90-day dog dietary studies; NOEL (0.16 mg/kg bw/d) based on evidence of liver cholestasis and inhibition of RBC ChE activity at the next highest dose of 1.96 mg/kg  
Methiocarb 0.002 0.2 1 Mar 2000 2-year dog study; based on plasma ChE depression and reduced food consumption observed at the next highest dose of 9.6 mg/kg bw/d and sexes and reduced food consumption in females observed at the next highest dose of 2.4 mg/kg  
Methomyl 0.01 1.25 14 Feb 1991    
Methoprene 0.4 35 14 Jan 2000 18-month study in mice; a NOEL of 250 ppm (35 mg/kg bw/d) was based on deposition of pigmentation in the liver at the next highest dose of 1000 ppm.  
Methoxychlor 0.1 (TDI) JMPR'94 21 Oct 2003   Tolerable daily intake. Traditional ADI not maintained as methoxychlor is no longer used in agricultural practice and does not have industrial sponsors. Numerical tox. end-point maintained to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary intakes can be compared.
Methoxyfenozide 0.1 10 12 Jan 2001 89-99 week rat dietary study and 52- week dog dietary study; a NOEL of 200 ppm (10 mg/kg bw/d) was based on reduced erythrocyte, haemoglobin and haematocrit levels and increased liver weights in rats at the next highest dose of 8000 ppm, and increases in methaemoglobin and platelet count and decreases in erythrocyte, haemoglobin and haematocrit levels in dogs at the next highest level of 300 ppm.  
Methyl benzoquat 0.05 100 10 Nov 1977    
Methyl bromide 0.0004 0.4 14 Sep 2001 90-day rat gavage study; based on clinical signs at the next highest dose of 2 mg/kg b/w d.  
1-Methylcyclopropene not established   10 Oct 2003   There was insufficient information to establish an ADI, however, based on its proposed pattern of use the dietary intake is likely to be low.
Methylisothiocyanate 0.0004 0.04 26 Feb 2004 3-month dog study; based on decreased testis weight, increased pancreas weight and abnormal liver histology at 2 mg/kg/d.  
Metiram 0.02 5 10 Feb 1988    
Metobromuron 0.001 2.5 4 Mar 1971    
Metolachlor 0.08 7.5 12 Nov 1987    
Metosulam 0.05 5 18 Jan 1993    
Metrafenone 0.25 24.9 13 Apr 2010 Based on a NOEL of 24.9 mg/kg bw/d in a 24-month rat study and using a 100-fold safety factor.  
Metribuzin 0.02 2 4 Nov 1982    
Metsulfuron-methyl 0.01 1 1 Aug 1985    
Mevinphos 0.002 0.015 (H) 29 Oct 1998 Human study; safety factor reflects concerns over the nerve conduction effects. LOEL 0.025.  
Milbemectin 0.007 0.7 29 Aug 2005 Based on a 24-month study in rats and using a 100-fold safety factor.  
Molinate 0.002 0.2 5 Nov 1986    
Molybdenum 0.005 0.91 1 Sept 2010 Based on a NOEL of 0.9 mg/kg bw/d for reproductive foetal toxicity endpoints Applying a 200 –fold safety factor for uncertainties due to an inadequate toxicological database and reproductive toxicity concern.
Monensin 0.01 1.25 10 Nov 1977    
Monepantel 0.03 2.96 10 Nov 2009 Based on a 52 week dietary study in beagle dogs using 100-fold safety factor.  
Monocrotophos 0.0003 0.0036 11 Jun 1998 28-day human oral study; based on plasma ChE inhibition at the next highest dose of 0.0057 mg/kg  
Morantel 0.01 1.2 26 Nov 2002 2-year dietary study in rats and 2- year oral toxicity study in dogs; based on reduced body weight gain, food consumption and food conversion efficiency in rats at the next highest dose of 20 mg/kg/d, and increased adrenal and liver weights in dogs at the next highest dose of 20mg/kg/d The NOEL in both studies was 2 mg/kg bw/d of morantel tartrate, which is the equivalent to 1.2 mg/kg/bw of morantel.
Moxidectin 0.01 1 7 Jun 2004 90-day and 1 year dog studies, and a rabbit developmental study; based on no observed effects at 1.12 mg/kg bw/d in the 1 year dog study, and maternal toxicity at the next highest dose of 5 mg/kg/d in rabbits. The 90- day dog study had a NOEL of 0.3 mg/kg/d, based on reduced weight gain at 0.9 mg/kg/d, and signs of neurotoxicity were observed at 1.6 mg/kg bw/d (no testicular or sperm effects).

The endpoints setting the LOEL in the 90-day dog study (reduced body weight gains in males at 0.9 mg/kg bw) were not observed in a 1 year dog study utilising larger group sizes at 1.12 mg/kg bw/d, suggesting that the reduction in body weight gains in males in the 90-d study may be incidental to treatment and therefore not an appropriate end- point for establishing an overall NOEL.

New information did not indicate a need to alter the existing ADI, set in April 2004.

MSMA 0.0005 0.5 10 Nov 1994    
Myclobutanil 0.03 2.6 12 Nov 1987    
n          
Naled 0.002 0.2 18 Feb 1987    
Naphthalophos 0.0001 0.25 7 Dec 1971    
Napropamide 0.1 11 29 Jul 1994    
Narasin 0.01 1.5 5 Aug 1983    
Neem Limonoids not established   28 May 2004   ADI not established; due to insufficient information.
Neomycin 0.06 6 (JECFA'96) 28 Feb 1996 Guinea pig study.  
Netobimin 0.004 7.6 10 Feb 1988    
Nicarbazin 2 240 4 Nov 1982    
Nifursol deleted   2 Dec 2003   Use of nifursol in food-producing animals has been withdrawn. Therefore, an ADI for this compound is not necessary.
Nimidane 0.001 25 18 Mar 1976    
Nithiamide 0.005 10 18 Mar 1976    
Nitralin 0.24 24 9 Aug 1972    
Nitrothal-isopropyl 0.05 5 19 Feb 1981    
Naptalam 0.065 6.5 4 Feb 1982    
Nitrovin 0.006 12.5 12 Nov 1981    
Nitroxynil 0.02 2 20 Aug 1974    
Norflurazon 0.02 1.5 1 Nov 1984    
Norgestomet 0.0000005 0.001 5 Dec 1985    
Novaluron 0.01 1.1 17 Jan 2001 2-year rat dietary study; a NOEL of 25 ppm (1.1 mg/kg bw/d) was based on haematological and histopathological changes at the next highest dose of 700 ppm.  
Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of helicoverpa armigera occlusion bodies not necessary   17 Dec 2003   ADI not necessary; as available evidence suggests it is unlikely to be a chronic toxin or pathogenic in humans.
o          
Octadecenoic acid methylester not necessary   30 Oct 2000   ADI not necessary.
Octenol not necessary   15 Nov 2004   ADI not necessary; not intended to be used in food commodities.
Octhilinone 0.03 60 18 May 1977    
n-Octyl bicycloheptene dicarboximide 0.07 7.5 25 May 1995    
Oestriol not necessary   5 Feb 2004   ADI not necessary; as it is not intended to be used in food production.
Ofurace 0.0007 1.3 10 Jun 1987    
Olaquindox 0.06 6 7 May 1981    
N-oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane not necessary   10 Dec 2003   ADI not necessary; as it will not result in human exposure via the diet.
Omethoate 0.0004 0.04 20 Oct 2005 A 2 year rat dietary study, based on inhibition of cholinesterase activity at 0.13 mg/kg bw/d and above. Supported by similar NOELs in a 2 year drinking water study in rats, a 1 year gavage study in dogs, and a 2- generation reproduction study in
ortho-Phenylphenol 0.4 JMPR'99 21 Oct 2003    
Oryzalin 0.1 12 5 May 1982    
Oxabetrinil 0.005 10 2 May 1985    
Oxadiargyl 0.008 0.8 28 Jun 1999 2-year dietary rat study; a NOEL of 20 ppm (0.8 mg/kg bw/d) was based on histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys at the next highest dose of 500 ppm.  
Oxadiazon 0.05 5 17 Aug 1989    
Oxadixyl 0.01 1.3 2 Jun 1988    
Oxamyl 0.002 0.2 18 May 1993    
Oxfendazole 0.005 0.5 8 Oct 1990    
Oxibendazole 0.01 10 2 Jun 1998 3-month oral toxicity study in dogs (capsules); based on reduced food consumption in males, and reduced body weight gains in both sexes, and reduced testes weights at the next highest dose of 30 mg/kg bw/d. High safety factor due to incomplete study database.
Oxycarboxin 0.15 15 15 Aug 1979    
Oxyclozanide 0.002 5 18 Mar 1976    
Oxydemeton-methyl 0.0003 0.027 16 Dec 1997 2-year feeding study in rats; a NOEL of 1 ppm (0.027 mg/kg bw/d) was based on inhibition of plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase levels at the next highest dose of 10 ppm.  
Oxyfluorfen 0.025 2.5 5 Aug 1982    
Oxytetracycline 0.03 JECFA'98 21 Oct 2003    
Oxythioquinox 0.006 0.6 11 Sep 1986    
p          
Paclobutrazol 0.01 1.4 10 Feb 1988    
Paraquat (as cation) 0.004 0.45 27 Jun 2003 1-year dog study; based on pulmonary lesions at the next highest dose of 0.9 mg/kg bw/d (males), and above.  
Parathion 0.005 0.05 (H) 4 Jun 1997 3-week oral study in human volunteers; based on erythrocyte cholinesterase inhibition.  
Parathion-methyl 0.0002 0.02 11 Jun 1997 12-month rat dietary study; based on neuropathological effects.  
Pebulate 0.007 0.7 5 Dec 1990    
Penconazole 0.007 0.71 6 Feb 1986    
Pencycuron 0.02 2 23 May 1994    
Pendimethalin 0.1 12 18 Feb 1987    
Penflufen 0.02 4.0 10 Oct 2012 NOEL not established. The ADI for penflufen was established at 0.02 mg/kg/d based on a LOAEL of 4.0 mg/kg/d in a 2-year chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study in rats for histiocytic sarcomas in males, and using a 200-fold safety factor.  
Penthiopyrad 0.1 11 1 Feb 2012 The ADI for penthiopyrad is established at 0.1 mg/kg bw/d using the lowest NOAEL of 11 mg/kg bw/d from a 2-generation reproduction toxicity study in rats based on reduced body weight gain in F1 adult males, increased liver weight in P and F1 adult females and increased relative adrenal weight with increased incidence of cortical hypertrophy in F1 females at the next highest dose of 54 mg/kg bw/d, and applying a default safety factor of 100.  
Perfluidone 0.003 5 9 Feb 1977    
Permethrin 0.05 5 29 May 1986    
Phenisopham 0.0003 0.5 16 Aug 1978    
Phenmedipham 0.03 3.4 13 April 2011 Based on a 1-year dietary study in rats using a default 100-fold safety factor.  
d-Phenothrin 0.05 5 1988 12 month dietary study in dogs, based on hepatocellular hypertrophy and focal degeneration of the adrenal cortex and using a 100 fold safety factor.
Phenothrin 0.02 2.5 10 Feb 1988    
Phorate 0.0005 0.05 30 Aug 1991    
Phosalone 0.006 0.625 19 Feb 1969    
Phosmet 0.01 1 12 Nov 1987    
Phosphamidon deleted   21 Oct 2003   There is no justification for an ADI for phosphamidon.
           
Phoxim 0.00025 0.025 22 Feb 1990    
Picloram 0.07 7 18 Feb 1987    
Picolinafen 0.007 1.4 1 Aug 2000 12-month dog study; a LOEL of 50 ppm (1.4 mg/kg bw/d) was based on body weight gain reductions at all dose levels.  
Pinoxaden 0.1 10 29 Aug 2005 Based on a two-year rat study  
Piperonyl butoxide 0.1 16 20 Mar 1997    
Pirimicarb 0.002 0.4 10 Sep 1987    
Pirimiphos-ethyl 0.0002 5 7 Jun 1978    
Pirimiphos-methyl 0.02 0.25 (H) 30 Aug 1991    
Poloxalene 0.02 40 14 Nov 1974    
Porcine gonadotrophins not necessary   25 Jun 2002   ADI not necessary.
Porcine somatotropin not necessary   29 Aug 1991   ADI not necessary.
Potassium bicarbonate not necessary   26 Feb 2004   ADI not necessary; use of potassium bicarbonate on food crops will not result in residues distinguishable from natural levels of this compound
Prallethrin 0.02 2.5 18 Jan 1993    
Praziquantel 0.02 20 22 Jun 1995 13-week oral dog study; based on increased relative liver weights of the thyroid at the next highest dose of 60 mg/kg bw/d.  
Prochloraz 0.01 1 5 Aug 1982    
Proconazole 0.008 16 14 Aug 1980    
Procymidone 0.03 2.5 13 Dec 2004 One-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats; the NOEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d (50 ppm) was based on increased (parental) testes weights and decreased epididymides and prostate weights at 250 ppm (12.3 mg/kg bw/d) and above, and using a 100-fold safety factor.  
Prodiamine 0.05 5 22 Dec 1994    
Profenofos 0.0001 0.0072 4 Feb 1982    
Profoxydim 0.05 5 29 Nov 2006 24-month rat study, based on decreases in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol levels and decreases in RBC's, haemoglobin and haematocrit in male rats at the next higher dose of 50 mg/kg bw/d. The same NOEL (5 mg/kg bw/d) was also obtained in the second 24- month dietary study in rats and in the 12-month dietary study in dogs.
Prohexadione-calcium 0.2 20 20 Dec 2007 2-year rat study and a 12-month dog study, based on abnormal haematology, clinical chemistry and thyroid histopathology and decreased bodyweight gain and food conversion efficiency at the next highest dose of 94 mg/kg bw/d in rats, and abnormal haematology and clinical chemistry and renal histopathology at the next highest dose of 200 mg/kg bw/d in dogs. The NOELs for the rat and dog studies were 18.5 and 20 mg/kg bw/d, respectively.
Promacyl 0.2 20 18 May 1977    
Prometryn 0.03 3 17 May 1990    
Propachlor 0.02 2 11 Aug 1988    
Propamocarb 0.1 10 10 Sep 1987    
Propanil 0.2 20 19 Feb 1981    
Propaquizafop 0.003 0.3 26 Nov 1992    
Propargite 0.002 2 17 Jun 1999 20-month dietary rat study; a NOEL of 40 ppm (2 mg/kg bw/d) was based on a transient cell proliferative response (increased jejunal smooth muscle cells) at the next highest dose of 800 ppm (a dose which induces jejunal tumours). High safety factor due to the narrow margin between the NOEL and the tumourigenic dose in rats.
Propazine 0.02 1.5 16 Jun 1986    
Propetamphos 0.001 0.1 14 Feb 1985    
Propiconazole 0.04 4 5 May 1983    
Propineb 0.0005 0.05 for PTU 15 Feb 2007 2-year rat study, based on increased cholesterol levels in male rats and increased plasma protein levels in female rats at the next highest dose of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d. The ADI for propineb should be a group value, which includes propineb and it's impurity/metabolite, propylenethiourea (PTU)
Propionibacterium freudenreichii not necessary   4 Sep 2002   ADI not necessary.
Propoxur 0.02 0.2 5 Nov 1986    
Propylene oxide 0.006 2.9 24 Jul 2006 124 week inhalation study in rats; based on reduced body weight gain and increased mortality at the next highest equivalent oral dose of 9.7 mg/kg bw/d and above. The ADI was based on route-to- route extrapolation, with equivalent oral doses being derived from inhalation doses. The safety factor included an additional factor of 5 because of the uncertainty associated with the use of route-to-route extrapolation.
Propylene thiourea 0.0005 0.05 2 Dec 1988    
Propyzamide 0.02 1.9 7 Jul 1994 2-year mouse study, based on a NOEL of 1.9 mg/kg/bw/d, for substantial liver damage and hepatocellular tumour incidence and using a 100-fold safety factor.  
Proquinazid 0.01 1.2 6 Dec 2011 The ADI for proquinazid was established at 0.01mg/kg bw/d based on a NOAEL of 1.2 mg/kg bw/d in a 2-year rat study and using a default 100-fold safety factor to account for potential inter- and intra-species differences  
Prostianol 0.000005 0.01 12 Nov 1981    
Prosulfocarb 0.02 1.9 21 Aug 2006 2-year rat study; based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next dose level of 16.9 mg/kg/d. The LOELs for reduced bodyweight gain were 5, 9 and 16.9 mg/kg bw/d respectively, in a two-generation reproductive study and 3-month and 2-year feeding studies in rats. The highest NOEL that was lower than any LOEL was 1.9 mg/kg bw/d.
Prothioconazole 0.01 1.1 28 Mar 2006 2-year rat study, based increased liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, and liver vacuolation with fatty change at the next highest dose of 8 mg/kg bw/d in rats. The NOAEL for the rat study was 1.1 mg/kg bw/d (in males). 0.01 mg/kg bw/d is a group ADI for prothioconazole and prothioconazole-desthio
Prothiofos 0.0001 0.01 29 Oct 1993    
Prynachlor 0.1 7.9 4 Mar 1971    
Pymetrozine 0.006 0.57 8 Dec 2000 12 month dietary study in dogs, based on slight anaemia and increased blood prothrombin time, plasma cholesterol and phospholipid level at the next highest dose of 5.2 mg/kg bw/d and using a 100-fold safety factor.    
Pyraclofos 0.001 0.1 29 Aug 1991    

Pyraclostrobin

Pyraflufen-ethyl

0.03

0.2

3

20

26 June 2008

17 Dec 2004

24-month rat study, based on reduced body weight gain in males and females at the next highest dose of 9 mg/kg bw/d in rats.

NOELs of around 20 mg/kg bw based on an 18-month and a 24- month study in mice and rats respectively and a developmental study in rabbits. Based on increased liver weight at the next highest dose of 1000 ppm (ca 100mg/kg bw/d) in the mouse study; increased urinary volumes and relative kidney weight , and decreased specific gravity in the urine at the next highest dose of 2000 ppm (ca 100 mg/kg bw/d) in the rat; and increased mortality at the next highest dose of 60 mg/kg bw/d in the rabbit study.

 
Pyrasulfotole 0.01 1 19 Oct 2007 2-year rat study, based on corneal and retinal lesions, increased liver weight, centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy, raised plasma cholesterol at 10 mg/kg bw/d.  
Pyrazophos 0.007 0.07 (H) 29 Aug 1991    
Pyrethrum extract 0.04 JMPR'99 21 Oct 2003    
Pyridaben 0.01 1 13 Aug 1992    
Pyridalyl 0.02 2.8 29 Apr 2004

Rat reproduction study; based on delayed vaginal opening among pups at higher doses, the NOEL was 40 ppm.

A 200-fold safety factor was applied due to the uncertainty relating to extrapolating across species for bioaccumulating compounds, the absence of appropriate steroid concentration monitoring and the likelihood that significant inhibition of 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity is occurring.

Rat chronic feeding study; based on a NOEL of 100 ppm (3.4/4.1 mg/kg bw/d for males/females) based on reduced bodyweight gain and food efficiency at the next highest dose of 500 ppm
Pyridate 0.2 18 20 Jun 1991    
Pyrifenox 0.007 0.07 (H) 30 Aug 1991    
Pyrimethanil 0.2 17 1 Nov 1995 104-week dietary rat study; a NOEL of 400 ppm (17 mg/kg bw/d) was based on reduced body weight gains and food consumption at the next highest dose of 5000 ppm. Supported by a 13-week dietary mice study; a NOEL of 80 ppm (18 mg/kg bw/d) was based on liver glycogen depletion at the next highest dose of 900 ppm.
Pyriofenone 0.09 9 26 Nov 2014 Based on 1- and 2- year dietary studies in the rat. The NOEL in males in the 1-year rat dietary study was based on changes indicative of altered liver function; a decrease in bilirubin and a decrease in alkaline phosphatase at 42.9 mg/kg bw/d. The NOEL in females in the 2-year dietary study was based on an increased incidence of chronic nephropathy of the kidneys at 46.5 mg/kg bw/d and using a 100-fold safety factor.
Pyriproxyfen 0.07 7 11 Mar 1994 Based on a 2-year dietary study in rats where reduced bodyweight and reduced bodyweight gain, transient increases in clinical chemistry parameters and increased relative liver weight were observed at the next highest dose tested, and using a 100-fold safety factor.    
Pyrithiobac sodium 0.2 21 18 May 1995 18-month mouse dietary study; a NOEL of 150 ppm (21 mg/kg bw/d) was based on elevated peroxisomal beta-oxidation rates in females at the next highest dose of 1500 ppm.  
Pyroxasulfone 0.002 2.05 23 Sep 2011 The ADI for pyroxasulfone was established at 0.002 mg/kg bw/d based on a NOAEL of 2.05 mg/kg bw/d in a 2-year dietary study in rats, which is supported by the NOEL in a 1-year oral study in dogs, using a refined 1000-fold safety factor consisting of safety factors of 10 for each of potential intraspecies and interspecies variation, and an additional safety factor of 10 to account for the seriousness of the health effect of concern. The NOEL for the mouse study was 100 mg/kg bw/d.
Pyroxsulam 1 100 14 April 2008 18-month mouse carcinogenicity study, based on increased absolute and relative liver weight in males associated with histopathological changes (increased incidence of clear cell foci of alteration) noted at 1000 mg/kg bw/d in a mice. The NOEL for the mouse study was 100 mg/kg bw/d.
q          
Quinclorac 0.3 35 13 Sep 2004 1-year dietary study in dogs; the NOEL of 1000 ppm (35 mg/kg bw/d) was based on depressed food conversion efficiency in males, statistically significant decreases in plasma creatinine levels, and increased kidney weight in both sexes at the next highest dose of 4000 ppm (140 mg/kg bw/d). Supported by a NOEL of 41 mg/kg bw for decreased bodyweights in a 78-week mouse dietary study.
Quindoxin 0.0007 1.5 7 Dec 1972    
Quinoxyfen 0.2 20 15 Jan 2002 24-month rat dietary study and 12- month dog dietary study; based on increased organ weights, increased incidence of severe chronic progressive glomerulonephropathy and enhanced growth of testicular tumours in rats at the next highest dose of 80 mg/kg bw/d, and reduced body weight gain, increased liver weight, liver pathological changes and anaemia in dogs at the next highest dose of 200 mg/kg bw/d.  
Quintozene 0.007 0.7 10 Sep 1987    
Quizalofop-ethyl 0.01 1.25 12 Nov 1987    
Quizalofop-P-tefuryl 0.01 1.3 14 Nov 1996 2-year rat dietary study; a NOEL of 25 ppm (1.3 mg/kg bw/d) was based on the induction of peroxisome proliferation with accompanying histopathological changes in the liver and tumourigenesis in the liver and testis at the next highest dose of 750 ppm.  
r          
Ractopamine 0.001 0.125 30 Jul 2002 1-year monkey gavage study and single-dose human study; based on increased heart rates and lower relative heart weight at the next highest dose of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d in monkeys and increased heart-rates in humans.  
Resmethrin 0.1 10 11 Sep 1987    
Rimsulfuron 0.02 1.6 24 Jun 1997 1-year oral dog study; a NOEL of (1.6 mg/kg bw/d) was based on biochemical changes, decreased body weight gains and testicular degeneration at the next highest dose of 81.8 mg/kg bw/d.  
Robenidine 0.005 10 17 Sep 1997 2-year dietary dog study; a NOEL of 400 ppm (10 mg/kg bw/d) was based on increased liver weights at 800  
s          
Saccharomyces cerevisiae not necessary   4 Sep 2002   ADI not necessary. Used in the manufacture of food for human consumption.
Saflufenacil 0.017 5 18 Dec 2009 Based on a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg.bw/d (which is also the NOEL) in a developmental rat study and using a 300-fold safety factor.  
Salinomycin 0.01 1 12 Nov 1981    
Secbumeton 0.02 40 7 Dec 1971    
Semduramicin 0.003 0.3 11 Jun 1997 1-year dog study; based on increased blood urea nitrogen, ALT and SDH levels and WBC counts, hypertension and ocular changes at the next highest dose of 1 mg/kg/d.  
Sethoxydim 0.18 18 5 Aug 1982    
Siduron 0.025 2.5 2 Mar 1994    
Simazine 0.005 0.5 5 Dec 1990    
Sodium 5-nitroguaiacolate *0.02 15 5 May 2014 1-year oral toxicity study in beagle dogs using a manufacturing concentrate establishing a NOEL of 15 mg/kg bw/d for effects observed at the next highest dose and using a 100-fold safety factor. *The specific concentration ratio of the active constituents in a proposed manufacturing concentrate in the 1-year dog study was applied to determine ADI limits.
Sodium ortho-nitrophenolate *0.04 15 5 May 2014 1-year oral toxicity study in beagle dogs using a manufacturing concentrate establishing a NOEL of 15 mg/kg bw/d for effects observed at the next highest dose and using a 100-fold safety factor. *The specific concentration ratio of the active constituents in a proposed manufacturing concentrate in the 1-year dog study was applied to determine ADI limits.
Sodium para-nitrophenolate *0.06 15 5 May 2014 1-year oral toxicity study in beagle dogs using a manufacturing concentrate establishing a NOEL of 15 mg/kg bw/d for effects observed at the next highest dose and using a 100-fold safety factor. *The specific concentration ratio of the active constituents in a proposed manufacturing concentrate in the 1-year dog study was applied to determine ADI limits.
Sodium cyanurate 0.5 50 14 Jan 1998 Developmental study in rabbits; based on reduced body weights at the next highest dose of 200 mg/kg bw/d.  
Sodium lauryl sulfate 1.0 100 27 May 2010 Based on a NOEL of 100 mg/kg bw/d from a 28-day rat oral study and using a 100-fold safety factor. An additional safety factor was not required, taking into consideration SLS's long history of use as a pharmaceutical excipient and as a food additive, and that within the Australian health portfolio the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code accepts SLS's listing in the US Generally Recognised as Safe list of flavouring substances.
Somidobove not necessary     29 Aug 1991 ADI not necessary.

Spectinomycin

Spinetoram

1

0.06

100

6.0

5 Aug 1983

5 May 2008

The occurrence of decreased food consumption and body weight gain, vacuolation of macrophages, multifocal bone marrow necrosis and non-regenerative anaemia at doses above the NOEL of 6.0 mg/kg bw/d in a 28 day repeat dose study in the Beagle dog, suggested a need to protect the public from this expression of toxicity. Accordingly a NOEL of 6.0 mg/kg bw/d was chosen as the basis for establishing the ADI using a standard safety factor of 100 The ADI was established as 0.06 mg/kg bw/d. The SF of 100 consisted of a factor of 10 to account for variability in the extrapolation of the result from dog to human and a factor of 10 to account for variation in genetic susceptibility among humans.
Spinosad 0.02 2.4 2 May 1997 2-year rat dietary study; a NOEL of 0.005% (2.4 mg/kg bw/d) was based on histopathological effects at the next highest dose of 0.02%.  

Spiramycin

Spirotetramat

0.75

0.05

75

5

9 Feb 1978

18 Aug 2008

An acute oral neurotoxicity study, based on urine and perianal stain and decreased motor activity in rats at the next highest dose of ≥200 mg/kg bw/d  
Spiroxamine 0.02 2.5 2 Jul 2001 12-month dietary dog study; a NOEL of 75 ppm (2.5 mg/kg bw/d) was based on liver and eye changes in both sexes and mild anaemia in females at the next highest dose of 1000 ppm.  
Streptomycin (and dihydrostreptomycin) 0.05 5 (JECFA '97) 28 Jun 2001 2-year rat study; based on decreased body weight gains at the next highest dose of 10 mg/kg bw/d dihydrostreptomycin. NOEL based on a study performed with dihydrostreptomycin due to the close relatedness of the two drugs.
Sulfadiazine 0.02 37.5 20 May 1993    
Sulfadimidine 0.02 2 20 May 1993    
Sulfadoxine 0.05 50 22 May 1995 3-month gavage monkey study; based on increased liver weights at the next highest dose of 166  
Sulfamonomethoxine 0.006 12 20 May 1993    
Sulfaquinoxaline 0.01 1 24 Jul 1997 90-day oral dog study; based on increased thyroid weights at the next highest dose of 1.5 mg/kg bw/d.  
Sulfatroxazole 0.05 100 15 Mar 1994    
Sulfentrazone 0.05 12 24 Jul 2006 2-generation rat reproduction study, based on decreased pup body weights and viability the next highest dose of 31 mg/kg/d The NOELs for the rat and dog studies were 36 and 30 mg/kg/d, respectively.
Sulfometuron-methyl 0.02 2.5 29 Aug 1991    
Sulfosulfuron 0.2 24 19 Dec 1997 2-year rat dietary study; a NOEL of 500 ppm was based on induced pathology in the kidneys and urinary bladder and associated biochemical and urinary findings at the next highest dose of 2000 ppm.  
Sulfoxaflor 0.04 4.24 27 June 2013 The ADI for sulfoxaflor was established at 0.04 mg/kg bw/d based on a NOAEL of 4.24. mg/kg bw/d for increased serum cholesterol and histopathological liver effects in males at the next highest dose from a 2 year combined toxicity/ carcinogenicity study in rats and using a 100 fold safety factor (10 fold for interspecies variation and 10 fold for intraspecies variation).  
Sulfur dioxide and equivalents (metabisulfites, sulfites, hydrogensulfites, thiosulfites) 0.7 JECFA'98 28 Feb 1998    
Sulfuryl Fluoride 0.01 20 ppm 25 Aug 2006 2-year rat inhalation study (6 h/day, 5 days/week), based on effects on the kidney, brain, bone and survival at 80 ppm (5.6 mg/kg bw/d systemic exposure).  
Sulprofos 0.003 0.3 21 Mar 1979    
t          
2,4,5-T deleted   21 Oct 2003    
Tebuconazole 0.03 2.96 27 Aug 2010 Based on a NOEL of 2.96 mg/kg bw/d for lenticular opacity and histopathological abnormalities in adrenals (hypertrophy of adrenal zone fasciculata cells) seen at the next highest dose of 3.75 mg/kg bw/d in a one year dog study using a default 100-fold safety factor.  
Tebufenozide 0.02 1.8 9 Oct 1996 2-generation dietary rat study; a NOEL of 25 ppm (1.8 mg/kg bw/d) for parental toxicity was based on the histopathology of the spleen at the next highest dose of 200 ppm.  
Tebufenpyrad 0.002 0.2 15 Jan 1993    
Tebuthiuron 0.07 7 14 Feb 1985    
Tefluthrin 0.005 0.5 30 Apr 1993    
Temephos 0.1 1 10 Feb 1988    
Tepraloxydim 0.05 5 19 May 2002 2-year rat dietary study; a NOEL of 100 ppm (5 mg/kg bw/d) was based on serum changes and decreased kidney and liver weights at the next highest dose of 600 ppm. at the next highest dose of 600 ppm. Supported by a 2-year rat carcinogenicity study; a NOEL of 100 ppm (5 mg/kg bw/d) was based on increased ovary weights and increased incidence of ovarian cysts at the next highest dose of 600 ppm.
Terbacil 0.06 6.25 12 Nov 1987    
Terbufos 0.0002 0.0025 26 Nov 1992    
Terbuthylazine 0.003 0.35 4 May 2001 24-month dietary rat study; a NOEL of 6 ppm (0.35 mg/kg bw/d) based on decreased body weight gain and food consumption at the next highest dose of 30 ppm. A 100-fold safety factor was applied.  
Terbutryn 0.1 10 29 May 1986    
α-terpinene 0.03 30 12 Aug 2010 Based on a NEOL of 30 mg/kg/d in a embryo-/foetotoxicity study with α-terpinene, based on delayed ossification, reduced kidney weight and skeletal anomalies and using a 1000-safety factor. 1000-fold safety factor including a 10-fold safety factor to account for the seriousness of the critical health effect concern (ie developmental toxicity)
Tetrachlorvinphos 0.05 5 7 Dec 1971    
Tetraconazole 0.004 0.4 12 Dec 2002 2-year rat dietary study; a NOEL of 10 ppm (0.4 mg/kg bw/d) was based on histopathological changes in the liver at the next highest dose of 80 ppm. Supported by a 2-year rat reproduction study; a NOEL of 10 ppm (0.4 mg/kg bw/d) was established for both reproduction and postnatal toxicity, based on prolonged gestation, difficult parturition and consequent deaths, higher liver weights delayed vaginal opening and balanopreputial cleavage at the next highest dose of 80 ppm.
Tetradifon 0.02 2 5 Dec 1990    
Tetramethrin 0.02 2 14 Aug 1992    
Tetronasin 0.001 0.1 14 Feb 1992    
Thiabendazole 0.3 3 (H) 2 Jun 1988    
Thiacloprid 0.01 1.2 20 Jul 2001 2-year rat dietary study; a NOEL of 25 ppm (1.2 mg/kg bw/d) was based on enzyme induction in the liver and histopathological changes in the liver, thyroid and eyes at the next highest dose of 50 ppm.  
Thiamethoxam 0.02 2 14 Apr 2000 2-generation reproduction rat study; a NOEL of 30 ppm (2 mg/kg bw/d) was based on lower body weight gains in the foetuses at the next highest dose of 1000 ppm.  
Thidiazuron 0.02 2.5 20 Jun 1991    
Thifensulfuron 0.01 1.25 16 Feb 1989    
Thiobencarb 0.007 0.75 10 Nov 1977    
Thiodicarb 0.03 3 5 Aug 1983    
Thiometon 0.001 0.12 11 May 1989    
Thiophanate 0.02 2 5 Dec 1985    
Thiophanate-methyl 0.08 8 15 Feb 2011 Thyroid toxicity observed at 40 g/kg bw/d in a 1-year oral dog study. The ADI is supported by a 2-year oral rat study, with a NOEL of 8 mg/kg bw/d for thyroid toxicity.
Thiram 0.004 0.4 30 Mar 1995 2-year dietary dog study; based on neurological disturbances, anaemia and changes in the liver at the next highest dose of 4 mg/kg bw/d.  
Tilmicosin 0.002 4 13 Aug 1992    
Tiocarbazil 0.08 7.5 14 Dec 1978    
Tolclofos-methyl 0.05 5 10 Feb 1988    
Tolfenamic acid 0.005 0.5 (H) 16 Jan 2001 Single dose human therapeutic study; based on the lowest effective therapeutic (antipyretic) dose in humans.  
Toltrazuril 0.01 1 4 Jan 1993    
Tolylfluanid 0.1 12.5 11 Dec 1998    
Tralkoxydim 0.005 0.5 29 Aug 1991    
Transfluthrin 0.003 0.25 16 Oct 1995 53-week dietary dog study; based on the absence of treatment-related changes at 0.25 mg/kg bw/d.  
Triadimefon 0.03 2.5 18 Feb 1987    
Triadimenol 0.06 6.25 2 Jun 1988    
Triallate 0.005 0.5 1 Dec 1988    
Triasulfuron 0.005 0.5 14 Feb 1991    
Triazbutil 0.06 6 10 Feb 1988    
Tribenuron-methyl 0.01 0.95 15 Apr 1994    
Trichlorfon 0.002 0.2 29 May 1986    
Trichloropyridinol 0.03 3 23 Feb 1995    
Triclabendazole 0.002 0.15 23 May 1996 2-generation rat gavage study; a NOEL of 3ppm (0.15 mg/kg bw/d) was based on increased pup mortality at the next highest dose of 15 ppm.  
Triclopyr 0.005 0.5 5 Nov 1986    
Tridemorph 0.02 2 10 Feb 1988    
Trifloxystrobin 0.05 5 29 Sep 1998 52-week oral dog study; based on increased absolute and relative liver weights, hepatocellular hypertrophy, biochemical changes, diarrhoea, reduced food consumption and reduced weight gain at the next highest dose of 50 mg/kg bw/d.  
Trifloxysulfuron 0.2 15 19 May 2002 12-month dog dietary study; a NOEL of 500 ppm (15 mg/kg bw/d) was based on increased liver weight, decreased bilirubin and atrophy in the thymus at the next highest dose of 1500 ppm.  
Triflumizole 0.04 4 10 Sep 1987    
Triflumuron 0.007 0.7 2 Jun 1988    
Trifluralin 0.02 2.5 30 Aug 1991    
Triforine 0.02 2.7 10 Sep 1987    
Trimethoprim 0.02 33 20 May 1993    
Trinexapac-ethyl 0.01 1.4 14 Dec 1993    
Triticonazole 0.02 2 13 Jan 1997 13-week dietary rat study; a NOEL of 25 ppm (2 mg/kg bw/d) was based on altered histology of the adrenal cortex in males at the next highest dose of 250 ppm. Supported by 52-week oral dog study; an NOEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on adverse effects on the liver (clinical chemistry and enlargement) at the next highest dose of 25 mg/kg
Tulathromycin 0.005 1 (MIC50) 11 Aug 2006 A microbiological ADI was established at 0.005 mg/kg/bw/day based on a MIC50 of 1 g/mL in the most sensitive bacterial genus, Bifidobacterium spp found in the human GI tract. The microbiological ADI is supported by a toxicological ADI established at 0.005 mg/kg bw/day derived from a12-month dog study and increased liver enzymes at the next highest dose and a 1000-fold safety factor  
Tylosin 0.3 30 15 Jan 1993    
u          
Ulocladium oudemansii not necessary   12 Dec 2003   ADI not necessary; although there were insufficient data to establish an ADI, since no residues are anticipated, the establishment of an ADI is not necessary.
Uniconazole-P 0.02 1.86 3 Feb 2000    
v          
Vamidothion 0.005 0.05 (H) 8 May 1980    
Vernolate 0.01 1 17 Aug 1989    
Vinclozolin 0.01 1.4 16 Nov 1995 2-year dietary rat study; a NOEL of 25 ppm (1.4 mg/kg bw/d) was based on increased incidence of testicular masses, Leydig cell tumours, oligospermia and changes in the prostate and pituitary gland at the next highest dose of 50 ppm.  
Virginiamycin 0.2 25 10 Feb 1988    
z          
Zeranol 0.0002 0.015 10 Feb 1988    
Zeta-cypermethrin 0.07 7 23 May 1996    
Zineb 0.005 5 27 Nov 1992    
Ziram 0.01 1 21 Jun 1995    
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