The health and psychological consequences of cannabis use - chapter 6

THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN RESCINDED: A list of references used in chapter 6.

Page last updated: 1994

Please note the information in this publication may no longer be current but is retained on our website for historical or research purposes.

<< Previous Chapter | Contents | Next Chapter>>


6. The chronic effects of cannabis use on health


References

Abel, E.L. (1985) Effects of prenatal exposure to cannabinoids. In T.M. Pinkert (ed) Current Research on the Consequences of Maternal Drug Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph No. 59. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Aronow, W.S. and Cassidy, J. (1974) Effect of marijuana and placebo-marijuana smoking on angina pectoris. New England Journal of Medicine, 291, 65-67.

Aronow, W.S. and Cassidy, J. (1975) Effect of smoking marijuana and a high-nicotine cigarette on angina pectoris. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 17, 549-554.

Benowitz, N.L. and Jones, R.T. (1975) Cardiovascular effects of prolonged delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ingestion. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics,18, 287-297.

Blackard, C. and Tennes, K. (1984) Human placental transfer of cannabinoids. New England Journal of Medicine, 311, 797.

Bloch, E. (1983) Effects of marijuana and cannabinoids on reproduction, endocrine function, development and chromosomes. In K.O. Fehr and H. Kalant (eds) Cannabis and Health Hazards. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Bloom, J.W., Kaltenborn, W.T., Paoletti, P., Camilli, A. and Lebowitz, M.D. (1987) Respiratory effects of non-tobacco cigarettes. British Medical Journal, 295, 1516-1518.

Cabral, G.A., Mishkin, E.M., Marciano-Cabral, F., Coleman, P., Harris, L. and Munson, A.E. (1986) Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaginal Infection in the guinea pig (42325). Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 182, 181-186.

Caplan, G.A. and Brigham, B.A. (1989) Marijuana smoking and carcinoma of the tongue. Is there an association? Cancer, 66, 1005-1006.

Carter, W. E, Coggins, W. and Doughty, P.L. (1980) Cannabis in Costa Rica: A study of chronic marihuana use. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues.

Cates, W. and Pope, J.N. (1977) Gynecomastia and cannabis smoking: A nonassociation among US Army soldiers. American Journal of Surgery, 134, 613-615.

Choi, Y.S. and Perl, W.R. Cardiovascular effects of adolescent drug abuse. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 1989, 10, 332-337.

Copeland, K.C., Underwood, L.E., and Van Wyk, J.J. (1980) Marihuana smoking and prepubertal arrest. Journal of Pediatrics, 96, 1079-1080.

Dax, E.M., Pilotte, N.S., Adler, W.H., Nagel, J.E. and Lange, W.R. (1989) The effects of 9-ENE-Tetrahydrocannabinol on hormone release and immune function. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, 34, 263-270.

Day, N.L., Wagener, D.K. and Taylor, P.M. (1985) Measurement of substance use during pregnancy: methodologic issues. In T.M. Pinkert (ed) Current Research on the Consequences of Maternal Drug Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph No. 59. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Day, N.L., Richardson, G.A., Goldschmidt, L, Robles, N., Taylor, P.M., Stoffer, D.S., Cornelius, M.D. and Geva, D.D. (in press) The effect of prenatal marijuana exposure in the cognitive development of offspring at age three. Neonatology and Teratology.

Doll, R. and Peto, R. (1980) The Causes of Cancer. Oxford University Press.

Donald, P.J. (1991a) Marijuana and upper aerodigestive tract malignancy in young patients. In G. Nahas and C. Latour (eds) Physiopathology of Illicit Drugs: Cannabis, Cocaine, Opiates. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Donald, P.J. (1991b) Advanced malignancy in the young marijuana smoker. In H. Freidman, S. Specter, and T.W. Klein (eds) Drugs of Abuse, Immunity, and Immunodeficiency. London: Plenum Press.

Top of page

Fligiel, S.E.G., Beals, T.F., Venkat, H., Stuth, S. Gong, H. and Tashkin, D.P. (1988) Pulmonary pathology in marijuana smokers. In G. Chesher, P. Consroe, and R. Musty (eds) Marijuana: An International Research Report. National Campaign Against Drug Abuse Monograph Number 7. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Freeman, G.L. (1983) Allergic skin test reactivity to marijuana in the southwest. The Western Journal of Medicine, 138, 829-831.

Fried, P.A. (1980) Marihuana use by pregnant women: Neurobehavioural effects in neonates. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 6, 415-424.

Fried, P.A. (1982) Marihuana use by pregnant women and effects on offspring: an update. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 4, 451-454.

Fried, P.A. (1985) Postnatal consequences of maternal marijuana use. In T.M. Pinkert (ed) Current Research on the Consequences of Maternal Drug Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph No. 59. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Fried, P.A. (1986) Marijuana and human pregnancy. In I. Chasnoff (ed) Drug Use in Pregnancy: Mother and Child. Lancaster: MTP Press.

Fried, P.A. (1989) Postnatal consequences of maternal marijuana use in humans. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 562, 123-132.

Fried, P.A. (1993) Prenatal exposure to tobacco and marijuana: Effects during pregnancy, infancy, and early childhood. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 36, 319-337.

Fried, P.A. and Watkinson, B. (1990) 36- and 48-month neurobehavioral follow-up of children prenatally exposed to marijuana, cigarettes and alcohol. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 11, 49-58.

Fried, P.A., Buckingham, M. and Von Kulmiz, P. (1983) Marihuana use during pregnancy and perinatal risk factors. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 146, 992-994.

Fried, P.A., O'Connell, Watkinson, B. (1992) 60- and 72-month follow-up of children prenatally exposed to marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol: cognitive and language assessment. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 13, 383-391.

Friedman, H. (1991) Cannabis and immunity. In G. Nahas and C. Latour (eds) Physiopathology of Illicit Drugs: Cannabis, Cocaine, Opiates. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Gawin, F.H. and Ellinwood, E.H. (1988) Cocaine and other stimulants: Actions, abuse and treatment. New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 1173-1182.

Gibson, G.T., Baghurst, P.A. and Colley, D.P. (1983) Maternal alcohol, tobacco and cannabis consumption and the outcome of pregnancy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 23, 15-19.

Gong, H., Fliegel, S., Tashkin, D.P. and Barbers, R.G. (1987) Tracheobronchial changes in habitual, heavy smokers of marijuana with and without tobacco. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 136, 142-149.

Greenland, S., Staisch, K.J., Brown, N. and Gross, S.J. (1982a) The effects of marijuana use during pregnancy. I. A preliminary epidemiologic study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 143, 408-413. (a)

Greenland, S., Staisch, K.J., Brown, N. and Gross, S.J. (1982b) Effects of marijuana on human pregnancy, labor and delivery. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 4, 447-450. (b)

Grossman, C.J. and Wilson, E.J. (1992) The immune system: mechanisms that counteract disease. Alcohol Health and Research World, 16, 5-14.

Top of page

Harmon, J. and Aliapoulios, M.A. (1972) Gynecomastia in marihuana users. New England Journal of Medicine, 287, 936.

Hatch, E.E. and Bracken, M.B. (1986) Effect of marijuana use in pregnancy on fetal growth. American Journal of Epidemiology, 124, 986-993.

Hembree, W.C., Nahas, G.G., Zeidenberg, P. and Huang, H.F.S. (1991) In G. Nahas and C. Latour (eds) G. Nahas and C. Latour (eds) Physiopathology of Illicit Drugs: Cannabis, Cocaine, Opiates. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Henderson, R.L., Tennant, F.S., and Guerry, R. (1972) Respiratory manifestations of hashish smoking. Archives of Otolaryngology, 95, 248-251.

Hingson, R., Alpert, J., Day, N., Dooling, E., Kayne, H., Morelock, S., Oppenheimer, E. and Zuckerman, B. (1982) Effects of maternal drinking and marijuana use on fetal growth and development. Pediatrics, 70, 539-546.

Hollister, L.E. (1986) Health aspects of cannabis. Pharmacological Reviews, 38, 1-20.

Hollister, L.E. (1992) Marijuana and immunity. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 24, 159-164.

Holman, C.D., Armstrong, B. et al (1988).The Quantification of Drug-Caused Morbidity and Mortality in Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Community Services and Health.

Huber, G.L., Griffith, D.L. and Langsjoen, P.M. (1988) The effects of marihuana on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In G. Chesher, P. Consroe, and R. Musty (eds) Marijuana: An International Research Report. National Campaign Against Drug Abuse Monograph Number 7, Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Institute of Medicine. (1982) Marijuana and Health. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press

International Agency on Cancer (1990) Cancer: Causes, Occurrence and Control. (Ed) L. Tomatis. Lyon: International Agency on Cancer.

Jones, R.T. and Benowitz, N. (1976) The 30-day trip - clinical studies of cannabis tolerance and dependence. In M Braude and S. Szara (eds) Pharmacology of Marijuana. Volume 2. New York: Academic Press.

Jones, R.T. (1984) Cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids. In D.J. Harvey, W. Paton and G.G. Nahas (eds) Marihuana '84: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Cannabis. Oxford: IRL Press.

Kaslow, R.A., Blackwelder, W.C., Ostrow, D.G., Yerg, D., Palenick, J., Coulson, A.H., and Valdiserri, R.O. (1989) No evidence for a role of alcohol or other psychoactive drugs in accelerating immunodeficiency in HIV-1-positive individuals: A report from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 3424-3429.

Kolodny, R.C., Masters, W.H., Kolodner, R.M., and Toro, G. (1974) Depression of plasma testosterone levels after chronic intensive marihuana use. New England Journal of Medicine, 290, 872-874.

Lau, R.J., Tubergen, D.G., Barr, M., Domino, E.F., Benowitz, N. and Jones, R.T. (1976) Phytohemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation in humans receiving delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Science, 192, 805-807.

Leuchtenberger, C. (1983) Effects of marihuana (cannabis) smoke on cellular biochemistry of in vitro test systems. In K.O. Fehr and H. Kalant (Eds) Cannabis and Health Hazards. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Linn, S., Schoenbaum, S., Monson, R., Rosner, R., Stubblefield, P.C., and Ryan, K.J. (1983) The association of marijuana use with outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Public Health, 73, 1161-1164.

Maykut, M.O. (1984) Health Consequences of Acute and Chronic Marihuana Use. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Mendelson, J.H., Kuehnle, J., Ellingboe, J. and Babor, T.F. (1974) Plasma testosterone levels before, during, and after chronic marihuana smoking. New England Journal of Medicine, 291, 1051-1055.

Mendelson, J.H. and Mello, N.K. (1984) Effects of marijuana on neuroendocrine hormones in human males and females. In M Braude and J.P. Ludford (eds) Marijuana Effects on the Endocrine and Reproductive Systems. Rockville, Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Milman, D.H. (1982) Psychological effects of cannabis in adolescence. In National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning. Rockville, Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse. .

Mishkin, E.M., and Cabral, G.A. (1985) Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol decreases host resistance to herpes simplex virus 2 vaginal infection in the B6C3F1 mouse. Journal of General Virology, 66, 2539-2549.

Morahan, P.S., Klykken, P.C., Smith, S.H., Harris, L.S. and Munson, A.E. (1979) Effects of cannabinoids on host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes and Herpes Simplex Virus. Infection and Immunity, 23, 670-674.

Munson, A.E., and Fehr, K.O. (1983) Immunological effects of cannabis. In K.O. Fehr and H. Kalant (Eds) Cannabis and Health Hazards. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation

Top of page

Nahas, G.G. (1984) Toxicology and pharmacology. In G.G. Nahas Marihuana in Science and Medicine New York: Raven Press.

Nahas, G.G. and Frick, H (1987) Developmental effects of cannabis. Neurotoxicology, 7, 381-395.

Nahas, G. and Latour, C. (1992) The human toxicity of marijuana. Medical Journal of Australia, 156, 495-497.

Nahas, G.G., Desoize, J.P., Armand, J.P., Hsu, J. and Morishima A. (1976) Natural cannabinoids: apparent depression of nucleic acids and protein synthesis in cultured human lymphocytes. In M Braude and S. Szara (Eds) The Pharmacology of Marihuana. New York: Raven Press.

National Academy of Science. (1982) Marijuana and Health. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press.

Neglia, J.P., Buckley, J.D. and Robinson, L.L. (1991) Maternal marijuana use and leukemia in offspring. In G. Nahas and C. Latour (eds) Physiopathology of Illicit Drugs: Cannabis, Cocaine, Opiates. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Norton, R. and Colliver, J. (1988) Prevalence and patterns of combined alcohol and marijuana use. Journal of Studies in Alcohol, 49, 378-380.

Nossal, G. (1993) Life, death and the immune system. Scientific American, 269, 21-30.

Nowlan, R. and Cohen, S. (1977) Tolerance to marijuana: heart rate and subjective "high". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 22, 550-556.

Pearl, W. and Choi, Y.S. (1992) Marijuana as a cause of myocardial infarction. International Journal of Cardiology, 34, 353-354.

Podczeck, A, Frohmer, K. and Steinbach, K. (1990) Acute myocardial infarction in juvenile patients with normal coronary arteries. International Journal of Cardiology, 30, 359-361.

Polen, M.R., Sidney, S., Tekawa, I.S., Sadler, M. and Friedman, G.D. (1993) Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco. Western Journal of Medicine, 158, 596-601.

Robinson, L.I., Buckley, J.D., Daigle, A.E., Wells, R., Benjamin, D., Arthur, D and Hammond, G.D. (1989) Maternal drug use and the risk of childhood nonlymphoblastic leukemia among offspring: An epidemiologic investigation implicating marijuana. Cancer, 63, 1904-1911.

Rosenkrantz, H. (1985) Cannabis components and responses of neuroendochrine-reproductive targets: an overview. In D.J. Harvey, W. Paton and G.G. Nahas (eds) Marihuana '84: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Cannabis. Oxford: IRL Press.

Rubin, V. and Comitas, L. (1975) Ganja in Jamaica: A Medical Anthropological Study of Chronic Marihuana Use. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.

Sherman, M.P., Campbell, L.A., Gong, H., Roth, M.D. and Tashkin, D. (1991) Antimicrobial and respiratory burst characteristics of pulmonary alveolar macrophages recovered from smokers of marijuana alone, smokers of tobacco alone, smokers of marijuana and tobacco, and nonsmokers. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 144, 1351-1356.

Stefanis, C., Dornbush, R. and Fink, M. (eds) (1977) Hashish: Studies of Long-Term Use. New York: Raven Press.

Tashkin, D.P. (1988) Summary of the Session on Pulmonary Effects. In G. Chesher, P. Consroe, and R. Musty (eds) Marijuana: An International Research Report. National Campaign Against Drug Abuse Monograph Number 7. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Tashkin, D.P. (1993) Is frequent marijuana smoking harmful to health? Western Journal of Medicine, 158, 635-637.

Tashkin, D.P., Coulson, A.H., Clark, V.A., Simmons, M., Bourque, L.B., Duann, S., Spivey, G.H. and Gong, H. (1987) Respiratory symptoms and lung function in habitual heavy smokers of marijuana alone, smokers of marijuana and tobacco, smokers of tobacco alone, and nonsmokers. American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 135, 209-216.

Tashkin, D.P., Wu, T.C., Djahed, B., and Rose, J.E. (1988) Smoking topography and delivery of insoluble particulates and carbon monoxide to the lung during the smoking of tobacco and marihuana of varying potency in habitual smokers of both substances. In G. Chesher, P. Consroe, and R. Musty (eds) Marijuana: An International Research Report. National Campaign Against Drug Abuse Monograph Number 7. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Tashkin, D.P., Fligiel, S., Wu, T.C., Gong, H., Barbers, R.G., Coulson, A.H., Simmons, M.S., and Beals, T.F. (1990) Effects of habitual use of marijuana and/or cocaine on the lung. In C.N. Chiang and R.L. Hawks (Eds) Research Findings on Smoking of Abused Substances. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph No. 99, Rockville, Maryland: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Taylor, F.M. (1988) Marijuana as a potential respiratory tract carcinogen: a retrospective analysis of a community hospital population. Southern Medical Journal, 81, 1213-1216.

Tennant, F.S., Preble, M., Prendergast, T.J. and Ventry, P. (1971) Medical manifestations associated with hashish. Journal of the American Medical Association, 216, 1965-1969.

Tennant, F.S. (1980) Histopathologic and clinical abnormalities of the respiratory system in chronic hashish smokers. In L.S. Harris (ed) Problems of Drug Dependence, 1979, Volume 127. Rockville, Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Tennant, F.S. (1983) Clinical toxicology of cannabis use. In K.O. Fehr and H. Kalant (eds) Cannabis and Health Hazards. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Tennes, K., Aritable, N., Blackard, C., Boyles, C., Hassoun, B., Holmes, L., and Kreye, M. (1985) Marihuana: prenatal and postnatal exposure in the human. In T.M. Pinkert (ed) Current Research on the Consequences of Maternal Drug Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph No. 59. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Top of page

Vokes, E.E., Weichelsbaum, R.R., Lippman, S.M., and Hong, W.K. (1993) Head and neck cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 183-194.

Wallace, J.M., Tashkin, D., Oishi, J.S. and Barbers, R.G. (1988) Peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations and mitogen responsiveness in tobacco and marijuana smokers. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 1988, 20, 9-14.

Wallace, J.M., Oishsi, J.S., Barbers, R.G., Simmons, M.S. and Tashkin, D.P. (1993) Lymphocytic subpopulation profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood from tobacco and marijuana smokers. Chest (in press).

Wenger, T., Croix, D., Tramu, G., and Leonardeli, J. (1992) Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on pregnancy, puberty and the neuroendocrine system. In L. Murphy and A. Bartke (eds) Marijuana/Cannabinoids: Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Wu, T., Tashkin, D.P., Djahed, B. and Rose, J.E. (1988) Pulmonary hazards of smoking marijuana as compared with tobacco. New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 347-351.

Zimmerman, S. and Zimmerman, A.M. (1990/1991) Genetic effects of marijuana. International Journal of the Addictions, 25, 19-33.

Zuckerman, B. (1985) Developmental consequences of maternal drug use during pregnancy. In T.M. Pinkert (ed) Current Research on the Consequences of Maternal Drug Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph No. 59, Department of Health and Human Services.

Zuckerman, B., Frank, D., Hingson, R., Amaro, H., Levenson, S., Kayne, H., Parker, S., Vinci, R., Aboagye, K., Fried, L., Cabral, H., Timperi, R., and Bauchner, H. (1989) Effects of maternal marijuana and cocaine use on fetal growth. New England Journal of Medicine, 320, 762-768.