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For information on the current situation on the Ebola outbreak in West Africa - view the Ebola web page.
For information on the current situation on the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in the Middle East - view the MERS-CoV web page.
- Before you leave, it is important to research every country you will visit, and to get advice that is tailored to your health needs. The risk of acquiring an infection and the appropriate preventative measures can be different for older travellers, children, pregnant women or those with underlying chronic diseases.
- While you are away, there are some things you need to keep in mind to prevent illness, like preventing insect bites and being careful of what you eat.
- When you return, keep an eye on your health. Some diseases may not become apparent until you have returned home and could spread to your loved ones.
What should you do to protect yourself from infectious diseases while overseas?
1. Research your destination and planned activities
The risk of infectious disease differs greatly depending on where you intend to travel and what activities you plan to undertake while overseas. In particular consider:
- Will you be travelling to countries in which food or water quality might be of a lower standard?
- Contaminated food and water can increase the risk of acquiring infections such as gastroenteritis, hepatitis A and some parasites.
- Will you be travelling to wilderness or rural areas where you are likely to be exposed to farm animals or wildlife?
- Animals in many parts of the world may carry rabies. Diseases carried by ticks and mosquitoes are a risk in wilderness areas of many parts of the world unless preventative measures are taken.
- Will you be spending a lot of time outdoors where you might be exposed to mosquitoes?
- Mosquitoes can carry serious diseases including Malaria, Dengue Fever and Yellow Fever.
Information on the health risks associated with many destinations can be found online at:
We also suggest you get in touch with the foreign missions of all of the countries you intend to visit or transit through. They can give you specific information about particular health requirements in their countries (e.g. vaccines you may need or medicines you should bring with you). They can also provide you with other information about their country that you could find useful or important.
2. See a doctor well in advance before you leave – even if you are wellYour doctor can advise you on measures which can be taken to avoid infectious diseases to which you might be exposed while overseas. This might include measures to avoid consuming potentially contaminated water or food, medication to reduce the risk of acquiring infections or vaccination against serious disease. Top of Page
Many diseases which are a risk to travellers can be prevented by immunisation. You should talk to your doctor about any vaccines or boosters you may need. Some diseases that should be considered are:
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Japanese encephalitis
- Meningococcal disease
- Varicella (Chickenpox)
- Yellow fever
Some countries still suffer high rates of infection from diseases that are rare in Australia due to our routine childhood vaccination. If you were born overseas, and you are returning to visit friends and family, you should still check with your doctor if you need any immunisations. Your immunity to some diseases may have changed or diminished with time.
Immunisations which are now routine in childhood in Australia should also be considered if travelling to areas where these diseases remain common. Depending on your age and previous medical history, you may not be protected against diseases such measles or polio. It is important to schedule a visit to your doctor at least 6-8 weeks before you travel to allow time to complete any vaccination schedule you undertake.
Yellow fever is a potentially fatal viral infection spread by mosquitoes. A vaccine for yellow fever must be provided by approved yellow fever vaccination clinics. These clinics provide a vaccinations certificate in a form that is approved by the World Health Organization.
Yellow fever is not found in Australia, but some countries require proof of vaccination against Yellow Fever before you are allowed to enter.
For some countries yellow fever is a very serious risk and may vaccinate you when you arrive, refuse you entry, or put you in a quarantine facility if you are not vaccinated against yellow fever.
If you are travelling to a Yellow Fever country you should contact the diplomatic missions of ALL of the countries you intend to visit to check their requirements for Yellow Fever vaccination and discuss these requirements with your doctor or a specialist travel clinic before you leave. The public health unit in your state or territory can assist you in locating your closest accredited vaccination centre.
If you are returning to Australia from a country where Yellow Fever occurs you are required to present a yellow fever vaccination certificate. You may enter Australia without a vaccination certificate, however upon arrival Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Biosecurity officers will reinforce the seriousness of the disease and provide you with a Yellow Fever Action Card. This card provides instructions on what an unvaccinated person should do if they develop any symptoms of yellow fever in the six-day period following their departure from a yellow fever declared place.
You can reduce the risk of developing an infectious disease when travelling by taking some simple preventative measures. Advice on the main health risks of travelling to particular countries can be found online at Smartraveller or by consulting a doctor experienced in travel medicine.
Some common measures which will help reduce the risk of infectious disease in many parts of the world to which Australians travel are:
1. Protect yourself from insects
The bite of infected mosquitoes is a major way by which infectious diseases can be spread in many parts of the world. Potentially serious diseases which are spread by mosquitoes include:
- Yellow Fever, which occurs in South America, Central America and Africa. A list of yellow fever infected countries is available.
- Malaria, which occurs in Africa, Asia and South America and can be particularly severe in people without previous exposure to the disease.
- Dengue Fever, which occurs in most urban centres in the tropics. Serious outbreaks have occurred in Queensland when ill travellers have returned and infected local mosquitoes.
The most reliable way to make sure you don’t catch a mosquito-borne disease is to wear a mosquito repellent containing DEET or Picaridin which will help avoid being bitten by a mosquito. There are other measures you can take to avoid being bitten, including:
- Wearing light coloured, long-sleeved clothes when you’re outdoors
- Avoiding wearing perfume or cologne (some of these can attract mosquitoes)
- Preventing mosquitoes entering your accommodation
- Using a mosquito net at night-time (if mosquitoes are likely to be present)
Mosquito-borne diseases don’t occur in all countries, but it is advisable to talk to your doctor about what vaccinations or medications you might need to take.
2. Be aware of the risk of rabies
Rabies is a virus which can potentially infect any warm-blooded animal and is found in most countries outside of Australia and New Zealand. It is spread through bites or scratches from infected animals. The greatest risk is posed by the types of animals people interact with commonly, such as dogs, but also includes monkeys, bats and rodents. Domestic or zoo animals in many parts of the world are vaccinated against rabies.
Travellers should be very careful around wild or feral animals, especially dogs, in all nations outside Australia and New Zealand. Avoid handling or feeding wild or unvaccinated animals as they might bite or scratch. Animals carrying rabies often do not behave differently or look unwell.
Infections with rabies are very rare but the disease is almost always fatal. If you are bitten or scratched by an animal while overseas it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. If a bite or scratch is considered sufficiently high-risk it is usual to provide vaccination and immunoglobulin to provide immunity against infection.
Further information for travellers about rabies can be found at Rabies, Australian bat lyssavirus and other lyssaviruses.
3. Think about what you eat and drink
Food-borne illness is a major cause of disease overseas and includes ‘traveller’s diarrhoea’ as well as more serious diseases such as hepatitis A or cholera.
The sources of food-borne illness are not always obvious. A glass of soft drink might be safe but the ice in the glass could be made with contaminated water.
High risk foods include:
- Unpasteurised dairy products
- Raw or minimally cooked meat or seafood
- Reheated food
- Food which has been left exposed to flies
- Food prepared in premises with poor hygiene
Your doctor can provide advice on antibiotics which can be carried if you are at high risk of developing food or water borne infections.
4. Sexually Transmissible Infections
Travellers should be aware of the ongoing risks of STIs (sexually transmissible infections) including chlamydia, gonorrhoea, Human papillomavirus, herpes, syphilis, hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not just for stopping pregnancy. They are also the best way to avoid STIs. Make sure you know how to use a condom properly and always have some with you. The rate of HIV/AIDS and viral hepatitis infection in some countries can be very high. Travellers should take precautions if engaging in activities that expose them to risk of infection such as use of contaminated needles and syringes, the use of non-sterile tattooing equipment, or unsafe sex.
Further information can be found at STI Sexually Transmissible Infections website
If you become unwell in the two weeks after your return to Australia see your doctor.It takes time after you are exposed to an infectious disease for you to become unwell (the incubation period).
For this reason, for the two weeks after you get back from overseas, you should pay close attention to your health.
If you get any of the following symptoms, see your doctor as soon as possible.Top of Page
- Unexplained skin rashes or lesions
- Persistent vomiting
- Persistent diarrhoea
- Unusual bleeding from the eyes, ears, nose, mouth or anus
- Swollen glands in your armpits or neck
- Prolonged loss of consciousness (not caused by consumption of alcohol, drugs or medications
- Persistent coughing or difficulty breathing
This list is not exhaustive and if you are feeling unwell after being overseas you should see your doctor. It is important to tell your doctor that you’ve been overseas, where you went and what activities you undertook.
Most diseases acquired by travellers are not serious, but it is important to detect a serious infectious disease early. This allows infectious diseases to be treated as soon as possible and you to take immediate steps to avoid transmitting this disease to others.
If you are concerned about a disease after you have returned to Australia you can also contact the public health unit in your state or territory (see contact details listed below).
Australian Capital Territory
Communicable Disease Control
Department of Health
Phone: (02) 6205 2300
New South Wales
Public Health Units
NSW Department of Health
Phone: 1300 066 055
Centre for Disease Control
Department of Health and Families
Phone: (08) 8922 8044
Communicable Diseases Unit
Phone: (07) 3328 9724
Communicable Disease Control Branch
Department of Health
Phone: 1300 232 272
Communicable Disease Prevention Unit
Department of Health and Human Services
Phone: 1800 671 738
Communicable Disease Prevention and Control Unit
Department of Health
Phone: 1300 651 160
Communicable Disease Control Directorate
Department of Health
Phone: (08) 9388 4878 or (08) 9388 4868