National Drug Strategy
National Drug Strategy

The costs of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug abuse to Australian Society in 2004/05

Bibliography

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Bibliography

References in the following bibliography have been classified into the following categories:

General references

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2000a), Statistics on Drug Use in Australia, 1998.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2000b), Australia’s Health, 2000: the seventh biennial health report.

Australia’s National Tobacco Campaign (2000), Evaluation Report, Volumes 1 and 2.

Becker, G. and Murphy, K. (1988), "A Theory of Rational Addiction", Journal of Political Economy, 96(4) 675-700.

Bureau of Transport Economics (1998), The willingness to pay method for valuing road accidents, paper prepared for the Road User Costs Steering Group, Austroads, September.

Collins, D.J. and Lapsley, H.M. (1991), Estimating the economic costs of drug abuse, National Campaign Against Drug Abuse Monograph Series No. 15.

Collins, D.J. and Lapsley, H.M. (1996), The social costs of drug abuse in Australia in 1988 and 1992, National Drug Strategy Monograph Series No. 30.

Collins, D.J. and Lapsley, H.M. (2000), "Economic evaluation of policies and programmes: further uses of estimates of the social costs of substance abuse", Bulletin on Narcotics, Volume LII, Nos. 1 and 2, United Nations Drug Control Programme.

Collins, D.J. and Lapsley, H.M. (2002), Counting the cost: estimates of the social costs of drug abuse in Australia in 1998–9, National Drug Strategy Monograph Series No. 49.

Collins, D.J., Lapsley, H.M., LeCavalier, J., and Single, E. (2000), "Introduction: improving economic data to inform decisions in drug control", Bulletin on Narcotics, Volume LII, Nos. 1 and 2, United Nations Drug Control Programme.

Collins, David; Lapsley, Helen; Brochu, Serge; Easton, Brian; Pérez-Gómez, Augusto; Rehm, Jürgen; and Single, Eric (2006), International Guidelines for the Estimation of the Avoidable Costs of Substance Abuse, Health Canada, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

Collishaw, Neil (1998), "Updating the Global Predictions for 2020: the Impact of Current Policies", in Abedian, Iraj; van der Merwe, Rowena; Wilkins, Nick; and Jha, Prabhat (eds.), The Economics of Tobacco Control: Towards an optimal policy mix, Applied Fiscal Research Centre, University of Cape Town.

Commonwealth Department of Family and Community Services (2000), Substance Abuse in Australian Communities, Submission to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Family and Community Affairs Inquiry, June.

Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care (2001), National Alcohol Strategy: A Plan for Action 2001 to 2003–4, published for the National Drug Strategy.
Easton, Brian (1997), "The Social Costs of Tobacco Use and Alcohol Misuse", report prepared for the Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand, the Health Research Council of New Zealand and the Public Health Commission, Public Health Monograph No. 2, Department of Public Health, Wellington School of Medicine.

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Ellemann-Jensen, P. (1991), "The social costs of smoking revisited", British Journal of Addiction, 86, 957-966.

Junor, William; Collins, David; and Lapsley, Helen (2004), The macroeconomic and distributional effects of reduced smoking prevalence in New South Wales, Report prepared for the Cancer Council New South Wales, June.

Lightwood, J., Collins, D., Lapsley, H., and Novotny, T.E. (2000), "Estimating the costs of tobacco use", in Jha, P. and Chaloupka, F. (eds.) (2000), Tobacco control in developing countries, Oxford University Press.

Lopez, A.D., Collishaw, N.E., and Piha, T. (1994), "A descriptive model of the cigarette epidemic in developed countries", Tobacco Control, 3;242-247.

Markandya, A. and Pearce, D.W. (1989), "The social costs of tobacco smoking", British Journal of Addiction, October., 84,1139-1150

Moore, Timothy, J. and Caulkins, Jonathan P. (2006), "How Cost-of-Illness Studies Can Be Made More Useful for Illicit Drug Policy Analysis", Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 5 (2), 75-85.
Productivity Commission (1999), Australia’s Gambling Industries. Inquiry Report. Volume 1.

Richter, B.J. and Gori, G.B. (1980), "Demographic effects of the prevention of early mortality associated with tobacco-related disease," in G.B. Gori (ed.), A Safe Cigarette: The Banbury Report, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Single, E., Collins, D., Easton, B., Harwood, H., Lapsley, H., Kopp, P., and Wilson, E. (2003), International Guidelines for Estimating the Costs of Substance Abuse—Second Edition, World Health Organization.

Steering Committee for the Review of Commonwealth/State Service Provision (various years), Report on Government Services , Volume 1, Education, Health, Justice and Volume 2, Emergency Management, Community Services, Housing, Productivity Commission, Canberra.

Stevenson, R. (1994), "Harm Reduction, Rational Addiction and the Optimal Prescribing of Illegal Drugs," Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. XII, July.

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Crime

Adhikari, Pramod and Summerill, Amber (2000), 1998 National Drug Strategy Household Survey: Detailed findings, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Drug Statistics Series Number 6.

AUSTRAC (Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre) (1995), Estimates of the Extent of Money Laundering in and throughout Australia.

Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence, Australian Illicit Drug Report (various years).

Australian National Audit Office (2002), Administration of Tobacco Excise: Australian Taxation Office, http://www.anao.gov.au.

Australian National Audit Office (2006), Administration of Petroleum and Tobacco Excise Collections: Follow-up Audit. Australian Taxation Office. Audit Report No. 33 2005-06, http://www.anao.gov.au.

Bryant, Meredith and Williams, Paul (2000), "Alcohol and Other Drug-Related Violence and Non-Reporting", Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 171, October, Australian Institute of Criminology.

Carcach, Carlos (1997), "Reporting Crime to the Police", Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 68, March, Australian Institute of Criminology.

Carcach, Carlos and Grant, Anna (2000), "Imprisonment in Australia: The Offence Composition of Australian Correctional Populations, 1988 and 1998", Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 164, July, Australian Institute of Criminology.

Carcach, C. and Makkai, T. (2002), Review of Victoria Police Crime Statistics, Report to the Chief Commissioner, Victoria Police, October.

Committee on Data and Research for Policy on Illegal Drugs (2001), Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us, Committee on Law and Justice and Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council.

Commonwealth Attorney-General’s Department (2000), Submission to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Family and Community Affairs Inquiry into
Substance Abuse in Australia.

Dalrymple, Theodore (2006), Romancing opiates: pharmacological lies and the addiction bureaucracy, New York: Encounter Books.

Davies, John Booth (1992), The Myth of Addiction, Harwood Academic Publishers.

Dubourg, Richard; Hamed, Joe; and Thorns, Jamie (2005), The economic and social costs of crime against individuals and households 2003/04, UK Home Office Online Report 30/05.
Ghodse, Hamid (1995), Drugs and Addictive Behaviour: A Guide to Treatment, second edition, University Press, Cambridge.

Godfrey, Christine; Eaton, Gail; McDougall, Cynthia; and Culyer, Anthony (2002), The economic and social costs of Class A drug use in England and Wales, 2000, UK Home
Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate.

Harrison, L. and Hughes, A. (eds.) (1997), The Validity of Self-Reported Drug Use: Improving the Accuracy of Survey Estimates, US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, NIDA Research Monograph 167.

Hoffman, M., Hunt, D., Rhodes, W., and Riley, J. (2003), "UNCOPE: A brief substance dependence screen for use with arrestees", Journal of Drug Issues, vol.33, 29-44.
Johnson, Holly (2004), "Drugs and Crime: A study of incarcerated female offenders", Research and Public Policy Series, No 63, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Makkai, Toni (1997), "Alcohol and Disorder in the Australian Community Part 1: Victims," Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 76, December, Australian Institute of Criminology.

Makkai, Toni (1998), "Alcohol and Disorder in the Australian Community. Part 2: Perpetrators", Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 77, January, Australian Institute of Criminology.

Makkai, Toni (1999a), "Linking Drugs and Criminal Activity: Developing an Integrated Monitoring System", Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No.109, April, Australian Institute of Criminology.

Makkai, Toni (1999b), Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA): a brief description, Australian Institute of Criminology, Research and Public Policy Series, no 21.

Makkai, Toni (2000), "Patterns of Drug Use Amongst Police Detainees: 1999–2000", Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No 185, December, Australian Institute of Criminology.

Makkai, Toni (2002), "Illicit Drugs and Crime", in Graycar, Adam and Grabosky, Peter (eds.) (2002), Cambridge Handbook of Australian Criminology, Cambridge University Press.

Makkai, Toni and McGregor, Kiah, (2002), "Drugs and crime: calculating attributable fractions from the DUMA project" in Collins and Lapsley (2002).

Makkai, T. and Payne, J. (2003), "Drugs and Crime: A study of incarcerated male offenders" Research and Public Policy Series, No 52, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Makkai, Toni; Radcliffe, J.; Veraar, K.; and Collins, L. (2004), "ACT Recidivist Offenders", Research and Public Policy Series, 54, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Matthews, Sharon; Chikritzhs, Tania; Catalanos, Paul; Stockwell, Tim; and Donath, Susan (2002), "Trends in Alcohol-Related Violence in Australia, 1991/92–1999/00", National Alcohol Indicators Bulletin, No. 5, April, National Drug Research Institute, Perth.

Mayhew, Pat and Adkins, Glenda (2003), "Counting the Costs of Crime in Australia", Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 247, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

McGregor, K. and Makkai, T. (2003), "Self-reported drug use: how prevalent is under- reporting?", Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 260, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Mouzos, Jenny and Smith, Lance (2006), "Drug use among police detainees, 2005", Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 319, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Mouzos, Jenny; Smith, Lance; and Hind, Natalie (2006), "Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA): 2005 Annual Report on Drug Use Among Police Detainees", Research and Public Policy Series, No 70, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Pernanen, K.; Brochu, S.; Cousineau, M.-M.; Cournoyer, L.G.; and Fu Sun (2000), "Attributable fractions for alcohol and illicit drugs in relation to crime in Canada: conceptualization, methods and internal consistency of estimates", Bulletin on Narcotics, Volume LII, Nos. 1 and 2, United Nations Drug Control Programme.

Pernanen, K.; Cousineau, M-M; Brochu, S.; and Fu Sun (2002), Proportions of Crimes Associated with Alcohol and Other Drugs in Canada, Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, www.ccsa.ca/docs/crime2002.pdf.

Poysner, Carmel; Makkai, Toni; Norman, Louise; and Mills, Leesa (2002). Drug Driving Among Police Detainees in Three States of Australia, Report to the National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund, April.

Stevenson, Richard J. and Forsythe, Lubica M.V. (1998), The Stolen Goods Market in New South Wales. An interview study with imprisoned burglars, New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research.

Walker, J. (forthcoming), Estimates of the Extent of Money Laundering in and through Australia in 2004, report prepared for the Australian Institute of Criminology.

Williams, Paul (2002), "Aetiological fraction estimates of drug-related crime", in Collins and Lapsley (2002) op cit.

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Epidemiology

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2000), Statistics on drug use in Australia 1998.

Begg, Stephen; Vos, Theo; Barker, Bridget; Stevenson, Chris; Stanley, Lucy; and Lopez, Alan (2007) The burden of disease and injury in Australia 2003, PHE 82, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim; Jonas, Helen; Stevenson, Chris; Cooper-Stanbury, Mark; Donath, Susan; Single, Eric; and Catalano, Paul (2002), "Towards a standardised
methodology for estimating alcohol-caused death, injury and illness in Australia", Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 26,5, pp. 443-450.

English, D.R., Holman, C.D.J., et al. (1995), The quantification of drug caused morbidity and mortality in Australia, 1995 edition, Commonwealth Department of Human Services and Health.

Hakulinen, T. and Teppo, L. (1976), "The increase in working years due to elimination of cancer as a cause of death", International Journal of Cancer, 17:429-435.

Holman C.D.J., Armstrong B.K. et al. (1990), The quantification of drug caused morbidity and mortality in Australia 1989, Commonwealth Department of Community Services and Health.

Mathers, C.; Vos. T.; and Stevenson, C. (1999), The burden of disease and injury in Australia, PHE 17, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

National Health and Medical Research Council (1992), Is there a safe level of daily consumption of alcohol for men and women? Recommendations regarding responsible drinking behaviour.
Ridolfo, Bruno and Stevenson, Chris (2001), The quantification of drug-caused mortality and morbidity in Australia, 1998, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Drug Statistics Series No. 7.

Fires

Davies, Chris (1997), Analysis of Fire Causes on or Threatening Public Land in Victoria. 1976/77–1995/96, Research Report No 49, Fire Management Branch, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria, October.

Queensland Fire and Rescue Service (2006), Spreadsheet—Fires Caused by Smokers’ Materials 2004/05, (private communication).

Health

Bammer, G., Ostini, R. and Sengoz, A. (1995), "Using ambulance service records to examine non-fatal heroin overdoses", Australian Journal of Public Health; 19:316-17.

Bittoun, Renée (2004), The Medical Consequences of Smoking "Chop-Chop" Tobacco, report prepared for the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, December

Degenhardt, Louisa; Conroy, Elizabeth; and Hall, Wayne (2005), "The effect of a reduction in heroin supply on fatal and non-fatal drug overdoses in New South Wales, Australia", Medical Journal of Australia, Volume 182, Number 1, 3 January.

Degenhardt, Louisa; Hall, Wayne; and Adelstein, Barbara-Ann (2000), Ambulance calls to suspected drug overdoses: Analysis of New South Wales patterns July 1997 to June 1999, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre Technical Report No. 94.

Dietze, Paul et al. (2000), "Ambulance attendance at heroin overdose in Melbourne", Drug and Alcohol Review, vol. 19, 1, March.

Health Insurance Commission, Annual Reports.

Webster, I and Rawson, G.K. (1979), "Health status of Seventh-Day Adventists", Medical Journal of Australia, May 19, 1, pp.417-420.

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Litter

Ecorecycle, Victorian Government Litter Research, http://www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/www/html/1517-home-page.asp.

Ecorecycle, Infrastructure Support.

Grants: litter infrastructure 1997/98, Victorian Government Litter Research http://www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/www/html/1517-home-page.asp.

Keep Australia Beautiful, http://www.pc.gov.au August 2000.

Novotny, T.E., and Zhao, F. (1999), "Consumption and production waste: another externality of tobacco use", Tobacco Control, 8 (1), 75-80, Spring.

Paid and unpaid workforce

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2000), Unpaid Work and the Australian Economy 1997 (5240.0).

Bush, Robert and Wooden, Mark (1994), Smoking, Alcohol and Absence in the Workplace: An Analysis of the 1989/90 National Health Survey, National Institute of Labour Studies, Flinders University, South Australia, March.

Bush, Robert and Wooden, Mark (1995), "Smoking and Absence from Work: Australian Evidence", Social Science and Medicine, vol. 41,3.

Parrott, Steve; Godfrey, Christine; and Raw, Martin (2000), "Costs of employee smoking in the workplace in Scotland", Tobacco Control, June, Vol. 9 No. 2.

Pidd, Kenneth J.; Berry, Jesia G.; Roche, Ann M.; and Harrison, James E. (2006), "Estimating the cost of alcohol-related absenteeism in the Australian workforce: the
importance of consumption patterns", Medical Journal of Australia, Volume 185 Number 11/12, 4/18 December.

Pidd, Kenneth J.; Berry, Jesia G.; Harrison, James E.; Roche, Ann M.; Driscoll, Tim R and Newson, Rachel S. (2006), Alcohol and work: Patterns of use, workplace culture and safety, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Injury Research and Statistics Series Number 28, June.

Webb, Gloria; Redman, Selina; Hennrikus, Deborah; Kelman, Richard; Gibberd, Robert; and Sanson-Fisher, Robert (1994), "Relationship between high-risk and problem drinking and
the occurrence of work injuries and related absences", Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol. 55, 4.

Public expenditures

Moore, Timothy J. (2005), What is Australia’s ‘drug budget’? The policy mix of illicit drug-related government spending in Australia, Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Drug Policy Modelling Project Monograph 01.

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Road accidents

Austroads Working Group (2000), Drugs and Driving in Australia: First Report, Austroads
Publication No. AP-RXXX.

Bureau of Transport Economics (2000), Road Crash Costs in Australia, BTE Report 102, Canberra.

Drummer, O. (1994), Drugs in drivers killed in Australian road traffic accidents: the use of responsibility analysis to investigate the contribution of drugs to fatal accidents, Victorian Institute of Forensic Pathology, Department of Forensic Pathology, Monash University.

State cost estimates

Collins, D.J. and Lapsley, H.M. (1999), The Social Costs of Tobacco in Victoria and the Social Benefits of Quit Victoria, Victorian Smoking and Health Program, Melbourne.

Collins, D.J. and Lapsley, H.M (2001), The Social Costs of Tobacco in Western Australia and the Social Benefits of Reducing Western Australian Smoking Prevalence, Cancer Foundation of Western Australia, Monograph series No. 1 2001.

Collins, D.J. and Lapsley, H.M. (2004), Counting the costs of tobacco and the benefits of reducing smoking prevalence in Western Australia, The Cancer Council Western Australia, Monograph series Number 4, 2004.

Collins, D.J. and Lapsley, H.M. (2005), Counting the costs of tobacco and the benefits of reducing smoking prevalence in NSW, Report prepared for the NSW Department of Health.

Collins, D.J. and Lapsley, H.M. (2006), Counting the costs of tobacco and the benefits of reducing smoking prevalence in Victoria, Report prepared for the Victorian Department of Human Services.

Data sources

Adhikari, Pramod and Summerill, Amber (2000), 1998 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Detailed findings, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Drug Statistics Series Number 6.

Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence (various years), Australian Illicit Drug Report.

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Alcohol Consumption in Australia: A Snapshot, 2004–5 (4382.0.55.001). Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure
and Product (5206.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (5242.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Demographic Statistics (3101.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Average Weekly Earnings, States and Australia (6302.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Causes of Death, Australia (3303.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Company Profits, Australia (5651.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Consumer Price Index (6401.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Corrective Services, Australia (4512.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Crime and Safety, Australia, (4509.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Deaths, Australia (3302.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia (6306.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Population by Sex and Age: Australian States and Territories (3201.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Higher Criminal Courts, Australia (4513.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Illicit Drug Use, Sources of Australian Data 2001 (4808.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Labour Costs, Australia (6348.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Manufacturing Industry, Australia (8221.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Manufacturing Industry, States and Territories (8221.1 to 8221.7).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Manufacturing Industry, Summary of Operations (8202.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Measuring Unpaid Work: Issues and Experimental Estimates (5236.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Prisoners in Australia (4517.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Private Hospitals, Australia (4390.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Recorded Crime, Australia (4510.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Survey of Motor Vehicle Use (9208.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Taxation Revenue, Australia (5506.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Labour Force, Australia (6203.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpaid Work and the Australian Economy 1997 (5240.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Working Arrangements, (6342.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Year Book Australia, (1301.0).

Australian Customs Service, Annual Reports (various years).

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Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Health Expenditure Bulletin (various).

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (1999), 1998 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. First results, August.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2000a), Statistics on drug use in Australia 1998.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2000b), 1998 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. State and Territory results.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2002a), Statistics on drug use in Australia 2000.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2002b), 2001 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. First results, May.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2002c), 2001 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. State and Territory supplement.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2005a), 2004 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. First results.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2005b), 2004 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Detailed findings. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2005c), 2004 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. State and Territory supplement.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2005d), Statistics on drug use in Australia 2004.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2006), Health expenditure Australia 2004–05, Health and Welfare Expenditure Series Number 28.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2007), Dementia in Australia: national data analysis and development.

Australian Taxation Office (various years), Taxation Statistics.

Australian Transport Safety Board (2005), Road Deaths Australia 2005. Statistical Summary.

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing (various years), Medicare Benefits Schedule Book. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, Annual Reports, Statistical
Supplement.

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Fitzsimmons, Gerard and Cooper-Stanbury, Mark (2000), 1998 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. State and Territory results, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Health Insurance Commission, Annual Reports.

Makkai, Toni (2000), Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA): 1999 Annual Report, Australian Institute of Criminology Research and Public Policy Series, No. 26.

Makkai, Toni and McGregor, Kiah (2001), Drug Use Monitoring in Australia: 2000 Annual Report on Drug Use Among Police Detainees, Australian Institute of Criminology Research
and Public Policy Series, No. 37.

Makkai, Toni and McGregor, Kiah (2002), Drug Use Monitoring in Australia: 2001 Annual Report on Drug Use Among Police Detainees, Australian Institute of Criminology Research
and Public Policy Series, No. 41.

Medicare Australia (various years), Medicare Benefits Schedule Group Statistics.

Medicare Australia (various years), Medicare Statistics.

Miller, Megge and Draper, Glenn (2001), Statistics on drug use in Australia 2000, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

New South Wales Chief Health Officer (various years), Health-related behaviours. Ambulance attendances for drug overdose.

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (2005), Expenditure and prescriptions twelve months to 30 June 2005, Pharmaceutical Pricing Section, Pharmaceutical Benefits Branch.

Queensland Fire and Rescue Service (2006), Spreadsheet—Fires Caused by Smokers’ Materials 2004/05, (private communication).

Steering Committee for the Review of Commonwealth/State Service Provision, Report on Government Services (various years), Volume 1, Education, Health, Justice and Volume 2, Emergency Management, Community Services, Housing, AusInfo.

Stevenson, Richard J. and Forsythe, Lubica M.V. (1998), The Stolen Goods Market in New South Wales. An interview study with imprisoned burglars, New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research.

Taylor, Natalie and Bareja, Michael (2005), 2002 National Police Custody Survey, Australian Institute of Criminology Technical and Background Paper No. 13.

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