(a) Includes intentional and unintentional injuries.
(b) Includes maternal conditions, nutritional deficiencies, non-malignant neoplasms, skin diseases, oral health conditions and ill-defined conditions. Source: Begg et al. 2007.
|High blood pressure||7.8||7.3||7.6|
|High blood cholesterol||6.6||5.8||6.2|
|Low fruit/vegetable consumption||2.7||1.5||2.1|
|Intimate partner violence||n.a.||2.3||1.1|
|Child sexual abuse||0.3||1.5||0.9|
|Urban air pollution(a)||0.8||0.7||0.7|
n.a. Not available.
(a) Estimate for long-term exposure; an additional 0.3% is attributable to short-term exposure.
(b) Estimate of the joint effect of all studied determinants, taking into account the overlapping effect among determinants on causal pathways. Source: Begg et al. 2007.
1. Data are for the year specified, or one to three years earlier or later. No data within this range were available for the Slovak Republic.
2. The prevalence of 16.8 per cent for Australia reported here is for persons aged 15 years and over.
Sources: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007, OECD health data 2007: statistics and indicators for 30 countries. Paris: OECD; data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, The 2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2007.7
Source: Australia’s Health 2008, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
1 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Australia’s Health 2008, page 27.
2 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Australia’s Health 2008, page 29. Results of the survey can be found in the National Health Survey Summary of Results 2004–05, available at www.abs.gov.au.
3 Adapted from ‘Table 2.17: Fatal and non-fatal burden of major disease groups, 2003’, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Australia’s Health 2008, page 55.
4 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Australia’s Health 2008, page 54.
5 Adapted from ‘Table 4.1: Proportion of total disease burden attributed to determinants of health, 2003 (per cent)’, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Australia’s Health 2008, page 114.
6 Adapted from ‘Figure 4.8: Prevalence of daily smoking, population aged 15 years and over, selected OECD Countries, 2006’. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Australia’s Health 2008, page 136.
7 Available at www.aihw.gov.au.
8 Adapted from ‘Trends in overweight and obesity prevalence, by age’. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Australia’s Health 2008, page 160.
9 Begg, S.,Vos, T., Barker, B., Stevenson, C., Stanley, L., and Lopez, A D., 2007, The burden of disease and injury in Australia 2003, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
10 Australia and New Zealand Organ Donation Registry Report 2009.
11 International Donation and Transplantation Activity. IRODaT 2008 report (preliminary data).
12 For further discussion of research, see Report on the Operations of the NHMRC Strategic Plan 2007–2009, available at www.nhmrc.gov.au.
13 For further information see The World Health Report 2008: Primary Care – Now more than ever, available at www.who.int.
14 For further information see Scaling up research and learning for health systems: now is the time, available at www.who.int.
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