National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System - current CDNA fortnightly report

The Communicable Diseases Network Australia (CDNA) holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance. This report provides a fortnightly summary on diseases of current interest and notifications of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases.

Page last updated: 05 April 2018

Fortnight 05: 03 March to 02 16 March 2018

PDF printable version of NNDSS report

If you are unable to download any of the above files please email OHP Webmaster.

Infectious syphilis

Increases in infectious syphilis notifications are attributed to an on-going outbreak occurring in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people residing in northern and central Australia and continued increases among men who have sex with men (MSM) in urban areas of Victoria and New South Wales (NSW).

Outbreak in remote Australia

In January 2011, an increase of infectious syphilis notifications among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was identified in the North West region of Queensland (QLD), following a steady decline at a national level in remote communities. Subsequent increases in infectious syphilis notifications were reported in the Northern Territory (NT) in 2013, Western Australia (WA) in 2014 and South Australia (SA) in 2016, following sustained periods of low notification rates. The outbreak is of significant public health concern given the: elevated rates of infectious syphilis among women of child-bearing age, increasing the risk of congenital syphilis; and the concomitant risk of HIV transmission.

For the latest information on the infectious syphilis outbreak, refer to the Department’s website - Infectious syphilis outbreak.

Increases among MSM

Since 2010, increases in notifications of infectious syphilis have been reported in MSM, predominately 20-39 years of age, residing in urban areas of Victoria (VIC) and NSW.

Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD)

The number of cases of IMD due to serogroup W and serogroup Y has been increasing across most jurisdictions in Australia. The Australian Government Department of Health, in collaboration with the states and territories, is closely monitoring the incidence of IMD in Australia. For the latest information on IMD, refer to the Department’s website.

Listeriosis

In the past quarter (31 December 2017 to 30 March 2018) there were 41 cases of listeriosis notified. This is 1.7 times the quarterly rolling five year mean of 23.6 cases. OzFoodNet (with NSW Health as the lead agency) is continuing to investigate a multi-jurisdictional outbreak of listeriosis. The outbreak is associated with the consumption of rockmelon from a single New South Wales producer. A trade-level recall of the product was initiated on 27 February 2018. As of 20 March 2018, there had been 19 confirmed outbreak cases. There have been 6 deaths and 1 miscarriage related to the outbreak.

Hepatitis A

In the past fortnight, there have been 29 cases of hepatitis A reported, compared with 20 during the previous fortnight. There have been 136 cases in the past quarter, 1.9 times the quarterly rolling five year mean of 70.0 cases.

OzFoodNet is currently investigating three clusters of hepatitis A:

  • A continuing investigation into the multi-jurisdictional outbreak of locally-acquired hepatitis A where male-to-male sexual activity is the most frequently reported risk factor. Nearly all cases have been male adults and the majority have reported male to male sexual activity during their acquisition period. The three circulating outbreak strains in Australia are the same or closely related to the strains currently circulating in Europe, which has been experiencing a multi-country hepatitis A outbreak predominantly affecting men who have sex with men, since June 2016. The Communicable Diseases Network Australia has briefed the Blood Borne Viruses and Sexually Transmissible Infections Standing Committee (BBVSS) to foster consistent messaging and promote awareness of the outbreaks to at-risk communities including men who have sex with men, and to promote the effectiveness of the hepatitis A vaccine to prevent infection.
  • A cluster of locally acquired cases that are not part of the multi-jurisdictional outbreak, with genotype 1B and with a matching sequence type. The source is still being investigated.
  • A cluster of overseas acquired cases who have similar travel histories. This is a genotype 1A cluster.

Shigellosis

Since 2014, there has been an increasing trend in national notifications of shigellosis. In 2017, there were 1,752 cases of shigellosis notified in Australia, which is 1.9 times the 5 year rolling mean (n=914). In the past quarter (31 December 2017 to 30 March 2018) there were 542 cases of shigellosis notified. This is compared to the quarterly rolling five year mean of 310.2 cases. Rates of shigellosis in Australia are higher amongst Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples than non-Indigenous people. In 2017, rates in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples were 100 cases per 100,000 population, while rates in non-Indigenous populations were 4 cases per 100,000.


Interpretative Notes

Selected diseases are chosen each fortnight based on either exceeding two standard deviations from the 90 day and/or 365 day five year rolling mean or other disease issues of significance identified during the reporting period. All diseases reported are analysed by notification receive date. Data are extracted each Monday of a CDNA week.

Totals comprise data from all States and Territories. Cumulative figures are subject to retrospective revision so there may be discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figure from the previous period.

  1. The past quarter (90 day) surveillance period includes the date range 31/12/2017 to 30/03/2018.
  2. The quarterly (90 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 90 days up to 30/03/2017. The ratio is the notification activity in the past quarter (90 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.
  3. The past year (365 day) surveillance period includes the date range 31/03/2017 to 30/03/2018.
  4. The yearly (365 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 365 days up to 31/03/2017. The ratio is the notification activity in the past year (365 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.

The five year rolling mean and the ratio of notifications compared with the five year rolling mean should be interpreted with caution. Changes in surveillance practice, diagnostic techniques and reporting may contribute to increases or decreases in the total notifications received over a five year period. Ratios are to be taken as a crude measure of current disease activity and may reflect changes in reporting rather than changes in disease activity.


Table of communicable disease notifications reported to the NNDSS for this fortnight

Please use the scroll bar located at the end of the table below to view all columns.

A copy of the table of communicable disease notifications for this fortnight is also included in the PDF printable version of the NNDSS report.

Notifications of Nationally Notifiable Diseases for the period 17/03/2018 to 30/03/2018

Footnotes:

* Ratio of the 90 day prior surveillance period to the past 90 day 5 year rolling mean, or ratio of the 365 day prior surveillance period to the 365 day 5 year rolling mean.

NN = Not Notifiable, NEC = Not Elsewhere Classified

Dates used are:

  • Past Quarter (90d prior surveillance period): 31/12/2017 to 30/03/2018
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean):
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 1: 31/12/2016 to 30/03/2016
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 2: 01/01/2016 to 30/03/2015
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 3: 31/12/2014 to 30/03/2014
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 4: 31/12/2013 to 30/03/2013
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 5: 31/12/2012 to 30/03/2012
  • Past year (365d prior surveillance period): 31/03/2017 to 30/03/2018
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean):
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 1: 31/03/2016 to 30/03/2017
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 2: 01/04/2015 to 30/03/2016
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 3: 31/03/2014 to 30/03/2015
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 4: 31/03/2013 to 30/03/2014
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 5: 31/03/2012 to 30/03/2013
  State or Territory Totals for Australia Historical 90 Day Period Historical 365 Day Period
Disease ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA This
Reporting
Period
Previous
Reporting
Period
Same
Reporting
Period
Last Year
2017 YTD Past
Quarter
Quarterly
Rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
Quarter
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Quarterly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Past
Year
Yearly
rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
year
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Yearly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis B (newly acquired) 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 3 4 4 17 17 45.2 0.4 - 126 166.8 0.8 -
Hepatitis B (unspecified) 2 84 3 40 3 2 34 24 192 225 276 1,397 1,397 1,553.6 0.9 - 5,863 6,429.2 0.9 -
Hepatitis C (newly acquired) 0 1 0 7 0 0 0 4 12 18 29 132 133 170.6 0.8 - 610 632.6 1.0 -
Hepatitis C (unspecified) 6 176 4 77 2 4 48 35 352 352 448 2,299 2,301 2,510.8 0.9 - 9,791 10,052.4 1.0 -
Hepatitis D 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 3 12 12 12.4 1.0 - 61 52.2 1.2 -
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0.6 3.3 0.3 2 1.6 1.3 -
Campylobacteriosis 26 277 11 314 107 17 141 94 987 1,120 918 8,893 8,905 5,290.2 1.7 1,198.4 24,711 19,719.6 1.3 -
Cryptosporidiosis 4 55 5 84 10 1 36 3 198 185 437 1,136 1,138 1,635.6 0.7 - 3,661 3,932.8 0.9 -
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 4 3 3 5.6 0.5 - 12 18.4 0.7 -
Hepatitis A 1 9 0 1 0 0 18 0 29 20 6 135 136 70.0 1.9 35.0 297 182.4 1.6 36.9
Hepatitis E 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 6 14.4 0.4 - 40 41.6 1.0 -
Listeriosis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 41 41 23.6 1.7 4.6 91 79.4 1.1 -
Paratyhoid 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 4 31 31 28.4 1.1 - 65 74.4 0.9 -
STEC 0 3 0 0 17 0 2 1 23 28 29 156 157 62.8 2.5 - 488 197.4 2.5 21.4
Salmonellosis 7 140 17 200 60 18 122 85 649 852 985 4,868 4,886 5,635.0 0.9 - 15,149 15,473.4 1.0 -
Shigellosis 0 8 20 9 0 2 11 13 63 81 54 541 542 310.2 1.7 24.0 1,885 951.0 2.0 204.8
Typhoid Fever 1 6 0 4 0 0 4 3 18 11 9 67 67 51.8 1.3 - 153 121.4 1.3 11.0
Quarantinable diseases
Avian influenza in humans (AIH) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Cholera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.0 - 3 2.6 1.2 -
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Plague 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection 73 1,179 59 854 242 39 75 460 2,981 3,373 4,302 21,626 21,672 23,163.0 0.9 - 91,712 87,827.2 1.0 -
Donovanosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.4 0.0 -
Gonococcal infection 16 387 51 192 44 8 207 120 1,025 1,183 1,245 7,730 7,730 5,130.6 1.5 - 28,151 18,305.6 1.5 92.4
Syphilis < 2 years 0 25 8 27 3 0 17 14 94 143 186 1,038 1,038 653.2 1.6 - 4,361 2,437.2 1.8 181.9
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration 0 6 3 5 0 2 31 7 54 83 93 520 520 477.6 1.1 - 2,056 1,818.8 1.1 -
Syphilis - congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0.6 1.7 - 7 3.6 1.9 -
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 6 6 0.4 17.5 5.5 13 3.0 4.7 5.9
Haemophilus influenzae type b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 6 2.8 2.1 1.5 18 18.0 1.0 -
Influenza (laboratory confirmed) 8 345 15 514 138 9 143 107 1,279 1,591 1,236 10,244 10,261 4,823.6 2.1 1,001.8 252,136 67,742.4 3.7 123,156.6
Measles 0 3 0 2 0 0 11 4 20 4 11 29 29 58.0 0.5 - 74 179.2 0.4 -
Mumps 1 3 4 14 1 0 0 1 24 30 42 196 196 140.8 1.4 - 837 435.2 1.9 -
Pertussis 4 131 4 52 18 2 33 31 275 367 517 2,446 2,448 4,025.4 0.6 - 11,168 17,475.2 0.6 -
Pneumococcal disease (invasive) 1 9 1 9 0 2 11 4 37 35 40 254 254 221.8 1.1 - 2,046 1,622.8 1.3 153.0
Poliovirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rotavirus NN 30 2 26 11 0 NN 6 NN NN NN 674 676 N/A N/A - 7,022 N/A N/A 2,292.1
Rubella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3.8 0.3 - 9 20.0 0.5 -
Rubella congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.8 0.0 -
Tetanus 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1.8 0.6 - 4 4.6 0.9 -
Varicella zoster (chickenpox) 9 NN 0 9 18 1 20 13 70 131 127 702 703 538.6 1.3 - 3,141 2,405.8 1.3 -
Varicella zoster (shingles) 7 NN 19 76 70 3 54 57 286 569 356 2,980 2,985 1,635.2 1.8 622.9 9,935 5,967.2 1.7 1,452.4
Varicella zoster (unspecified) 4 NN 1 243 61 16 138 77 540 458 628 3,494 3,495 3,293.4 1.1 - 16,059 12,511.0 1.3 -
Vectorborne diseases
Barmah Forest virus infection 0 5 0 13 0 0 0 4 22 21 23 106 106 436.6 0.2 - 451 1,469.4 0.3 -
Chikungunya virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 6 9 9 28.0 0.3 - 88 100.0 0.9 -
Dengue virus infection 0 5 2 2 1 0 0 2 12 26 44 206 206 586.8 0.4 - 889 1,758.8 0.5 -
Flavivirus unspecified (unspecified) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 12.0 0.1 - 11 35.0 0.3 -
Japanese encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.0 - 1 1.6 0.6 -

Malaria

0 2 0 4 0 0 0 2 8 5 12 85 85 101.0 0.8 - 326 333.4 1.0 -
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.4 0.0 -
Ross River virus infection 0 20 7 75 5 1 1 48 157 156 494 834 834 2,719.6 0.3 - 4,181 5,790.6 0.7 -
West Nile/Kunjin virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 6 0.8 7.5 3.5
Zoonoses
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Australian bat lyssavirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Brucellosis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 12 12 4.0 3.0 4.8 29 18.4 1.6 3.2
Leptospirosis 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 7 4 8 34 34 30.0 1.1 - 123 99.8 1.2 -
Lyssavirus infecton (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Ornithosis 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 6.6 0.3 - 18 40.0 0.5 -
Q fever 0 5 0 8 0 0 0 1 14 18 13 116 116 139.8 0.8 - 455 504.6 0.9 -
Tularaemia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis 0 4 0 2 0 0 2 4 12 21 8 114 114 90.8 1.3 - 411 408.2 1.0 -
Leprosy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2.6 0.0 - 8 13.6 0.6 -
Meningococcal disease (invasive) 0 4 0 1 1 0 2 1 9 2 7 48 48 41.4 1.2 - 357 201.4 1.8 48.1
Tuberculosis 0 9 0 6 1 0 13 9 38 45 47 288 288 310.0 0.9 - 1,389 1,304.6 1.1 -
Totals 170 2,932 236 2,883 814 127 1,177 1,235 9,499 11,179 12,658 73,539 73,651        500,500       
top of page