National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System - current CDNA fortnightly report

The Communicable Diseases Network Australia (CDNA) holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance. This report provides a fortnightly summary on diseases of current interest and notifications of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases.

Page last updated: 19 September 2017

Fortnight 18: 26 August to 08 September 2017

If you are unable to download any of the above files please email OHP Webmaster.

Hepatitis A

There have been five notifications of hepatitis A in the last fortnight, with four of these notified in New South Wales (NSW). All four are believed to have been locally acquired. NSW Health is currently investigating an outbreak of hepatitis A in Sydney and surrounding areas. More details can be found on the NSW Health website.

Infectious syphilis

Increases in infectious syphilis notifications are attributed to an on-going outbreak occurring in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people residing in northern and central Australia and continued increases among men who have sex with men (MSM) in urban areas of Victoria and NSW.

Outbreak in remote Australia

In January 2011, an increase of infectious syphilis notifications among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was identified in the North West region of Queensland (QLD), following a steady decline at a national level in remote communities. Subsequent increases in infectious syphilis notifications were reported in the Northern Territory (NT) in 2013, Western Australia (WA) in 2014 and South Australia (SA) in 2016, following sustained periods of low notification rates. The outbreak is of significant public health concern given the: elevated rates of infectious syphilis among women of child-bearing age, increasing the risk of congenital syphilis; and the concomitant risk of HIV transmission.

For the latest information on the infectious syphilis outbreak, refer to the Department’s website - Infectious syphilis outbreak.

Increases among MSM

Since 2010, increases in notifications of infectious syphilis have been reported in MSM, predominately 20-39 years of age, residing in urban areas of Victoria (VIC) and NSW.

Influenza (laboratory confirmed)

Influenza activity at the national level decreased this reporting fortnight; however, high levels of activity continued to be reported in a majority of regions.

The Australian Government Department of Health continues to monitor influenza activity and a detailed analysis of influenza activity is available on the Department's website.

Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD)

The number of cases of IMD due to serogroup W and serogroup Y has been increasing across most jurisdictions in Australia. The Australian Government Department of Health, in collaboration with the states and territories, is closely monitoring the incidence of IMD in Australia. For the latest information on IMD, refer to the Department’s website.

Pneumococcal disease (invasive)

Notifications of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were around 28% higher over the past quarter (n=776), when compared to the quarterly rolling 5 year mean (n=606.6). Notifications of IPD traditionally increase and peak over the winter months. A more detailed analysis of IPD notification trends in Australia up to 30 June 2017 is available in the IPD quarterly report.

Shigellosis

There have been 68 notifications of shigellosis in the last fortnight, compared to 63 in the previous period and 49 in the same period in 2016. Of these, 17 were notified in the NT, 12 in WA, and 4 in SA. Of the cases in these jurisdictions, 16 were typed as Shigella flexneri biotype 2b (7 in WA, 6 in the NT, and 3 in SA) with 12 of the 16 in people of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent. A previously uncommon biotype, a widespread increase was reported in May 2017 across central Australia with no focal point and mainly in adults of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent. While notifications in the NT have declined in the following months, total notifications have remained relatively constant (36 to 41 notifications per month) as transmission has occurred in other states.

West Nile/Kunjin Virus infection

Between 26 August and 8 September 2017 there were two notifications of West Nile/Kunjin Virus (WNV/KUNV) infection. There have been three notifications during the past quarter (11 June to 8 September 2017) compared with the quarterly rolling mean of 1.0 cases.

The two cases reported during the past quarter were notified by VIC and QLD and were acquired in Australia. The case notified by VIC was diagnosed in WA and was thought to have been acquired in the northern parts of WA or possibly the NT. Information about the specific place of acquisition for the case notified by QLD is pending.

Symptomatic cases of KUNV cases are rare in Northern Australia, although infection is probably not uncommon.1


Reference

  1. Gray, T.J.; Burrow, J.N.; Markey, P.G.; Whelan, P.I.; Jackson, J and Smith, D.W. et al. (2011) West Nile virus (Kunjin subtype) disease in the Northern Territory of Australia—A case of encephalitis and review of all reported cases. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 85(5):952-956.

Interpretative Notes

Selected diseases are chosen each fortnight based on either exceeding two standard deviations from the 90 day and/or 365 day five year rolling mean or other disease issues of significance identified during the reporting period. All diseases reported are analysed by notification receive date. Data are extracted each Monday of a CDNA week.

Totals comprise data from all States and Territories. Cumulative figures are subject to retrospective revision so there may be discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figure from the previous period.

  1. The past quarter (90 day) surveillance period includes the date range 11/06/2017 to 08/09/2017.
  2. The quarterly (90 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 90 days up to 08/09/2016. The ratio is the notification activity in the past quarter (90 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.
  3. The past year (365 day) surveillance period includes the date range 09/09/2016 to 08/09/2017.
  4. The yearly (365 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 365 days up to 08/09/2016. The ratio is the notification activity in the past year (365 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.

The five year rolling mean and the ratio of notifications compared with the five year rolling mean should be interpreted with caution. Changes in surveillance practice, diagnostic techniques and reporting may contribute to increases or decreases in the total notifications received over a five year period. Ratios are to be taken as a crude measure of current disease activity and may reflect changes in reporting rather than changes in disease activity.


Table of communicable disease notifications reported to the NNDSS for this fortnight

Please use the scroll bar located at the end of the table below to view all columns.

A copy of the table of communicable disease notifications for this fortnight is also included in the PDF printable version of the NNDSS report.

Notifications of Nationally Notifiable Diseases for the period 26/08/2017 to 08/09/2017

Footnotes:

* Ratio of the 90 day prior surveillance period to the past 90 day 5 year rolling mean, or ratio of the 365 day prior surveillance period to the 365 day 5 year rolling mean.

NN = Not Notifiable, NEC = Not Elsewhere Classified

Dates used are:

  • Past Quarter (90d prior surveillance period): 11/06/2017 to 08/09/2017
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean):
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 1: 11/06/2016 to 08/09/2016
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 2: 11/06/2015 to 08/09/2015
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 3: 11/06/2014 to 08/09/2014
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 4: 11/06/2013 to 08/09/2013
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 5: 11/06/2012 to 08/09/2012
  • Past year (365d prior surveillance period): 09/09/2017 to 08/09/2017
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean):
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 1: 10/09/2015 to 08/09/2016
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 2: 09/09/2014 to 08/09/2015
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 3: 09/09/2013 to 08/09/2014
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 4: 09/09/2012 to 08/09/2013
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 5: 10/09/2011 to 08/09/2012
  State or Territory Totals for Australia Historical 90 Day Period Historical 365 Day Period
Disease ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA This
Reporting
Period
Previous
Reporting
Period
Same
Reporting
Period
Last Year
2017 YTD Past
Quarter
Quarterly
Rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
Quarter
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Quarterly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Past
Year
Yearly
rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
year
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Yearly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis B (newly acquired) 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 0 5 5 2 100 34 40.4 0.8 - 146 171.8 0.8 -
Hepatitis B (unspecified) 4 85 1 38 0 1 55 20 204 220 230 4,156 1,391 1,646.0 0.8 - 5,924 6,476.6 0.9 -
Hepatitis C (newly acquired) 0 2 0 9 1 0 2 4 18 17 24 426 147 149.2 1.0 - 644 603.0 1.1 -
Hepatitis C (unspecified) 5 149 4 119 0 9 52 40 378 401 414 7,042 2,547 2,459.8 1.0 - 10,482 9,950.8 1.1 -
Hepatitis D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 31 10 13.8 0.7 - 51 48.8 1.0 -
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.0 - 0 2.0 0.0 -
Campylobacteriosis 11 NN 17 191 118 13 36 132 518 496 854 14,597 4,033 4,481.6 0.9 - 22,914 18,779.8 1.2 -
Cryptosporidiosis 0 5 3 11 4 1 22 9 55 64 97 4,010 605 518.2 1.2 - 5,022 3,652.6 1.4 -
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 10 1 3.0 0.3 - 18 17.6 1.0 -
Hepatitis A 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 8 8 109 38 38.8 1.0 - 149 182.8 0.8 -
Hepatitis E 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 46 17 8.6 2.0 - 55 40.6 1.4 -
Listeriosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 4 50 14 13.8 1.0 - 75 80.0 0.9 -
Paratyhoid 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 43 11 12.8 0.9 - 64 75.6 0.8 -
STEC 0 2 0 1 7 0 2 0 12 12 17 320 95 44.4 2.1 - 480 151.0 3.2 239.2
Salmonellosis 8 85 11 74 25 8 98 65 374 376 386 12,361 2,659 2,593.8 1.0 - 16,728 14,778.4 1.1 -
Shigellosis 1 9 17 6 4 2 17 12 68 63 49 1,151 458 214.0 2.1 31.7 1,581 850.6 1.9 72.2
Typhoid Fever 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 3 5 102 20 18.0 1.1 - 132 122.8 1.1 -
Quarantinable diseases
Avian influenza in humans (AIH) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Cholera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.0 - 1 2.6 0.4 -
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Plague 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection 48 935 68 889 229 2 0 406 2,577 2,655 3,016 57,123 18,818 19,932.2 0.9 - 81,370 83,323.8 1.0 -
Donovanosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.4 0.0 -
Gonococcal infection 7 309 46 170 41 1 162 122 858 1,025 925 19,949 6,498 4,191.8 1.6 119.7 27,588 16,673.6 1.7 4,272.0
Syphilis < 2 years 2 28 17 28 3 1 19 12 110 156 161 2,808 967 590.8 1.6 - 3,852 2,149.8 1.8 239.5
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration 0 4 4 12 2 1 68 2 93 87 80 1,497 535 446.8 1.2 - 2,123 1,736.0 1.2 -
Syphilis - congenital 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 7 4 1.2 3.3 - 8 3.6 2.2 0.5
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0.6 1.7 - 8 2.2 3.6 1.2
Haemophilus influenzae type b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 9 4 6.8 0.6 - 13 17.8 0.7 -
Influenza (laboratory confirmed) 544 20,365 194 10,408 3,797 709 760 667 37,444 38,957 15,973 150,349 135,461 39,495.4 3.4 58,991.4 183,679 60,578.8 3.0 66,407.3
Measles 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 2 63 6 46.0 0.1 - 92 178.4 0.5 -
Mumps 0 3 6 17 4 0 1 2 33 30 34 541 214 93.2 2.3 - 687 387.8 1.8 -
Pertussis 1 133 1 56 79 1 73 88 432 451 784 8,753 2,972 3,970.6 0.7 - 15,770 19,488.6 0.8 -
Pneumococcal disease (invasive) 1 43 4 28 9 4 24 14 127 127 98 1,371 776 606.6 1.3 33.4 1,931 1,615.0 1.2 39.3
Poliovirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rotavirus NN 179 15 112 78 4 NN 11 NN NN NN 3,778 2,146 N/A N/A 893.2 4,748 N/A N/A 838.7
Rubella 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 11 4 6.6 0.6 - 14 23.8 0.6 -
Rubella congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.8 0.0 -
Tetanus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0.2 5.0 - 6 4.0 1.5 -
Varicella zoster (chickenpox) 4 NN 2 12 14 0 0 42 74 82 131 1,760 562 625.8 0.9 - 2,924 2,271.6 1.3 71.6
Varicella zoster (shingles) 4 NN 15 1 79 0 6 61 166 192 281 5,256 1,486 1,334.2 1.1 - 7,826 5,499.6 1.4 310.3
Varicella zoster (unspecified) 10 NN 0 305 42 12 0 72 441 418 532 11,180 3,916 2,982.0 1.3 - 16,014 11,781.4 1.4 -
Vectorborne diseases
Barmah Forest virus infection 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 1 14 11 8 312 105 287.0 0.4 - 384 1,604.6 0.2 -
Chikungunya virus infection 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 3 5 53 23 24.2 1.0 - 120 85.6 1.4 -
Dengue virus infection 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 4 28 50 795 170 394.0 0.4 - 1,210 1,769.0 0.7 -
Flavivirus unspecified (unspecified) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 15 3 6.2 0.5 - 48 27.6 1.7 -
Japanese encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.6 0.0 - 1 1.8 0.6 -

Malaria

0 1 1 3 0 0 0 3 8 9 7 247 67 87.0 0.8 - 338 334.2 1.0 -
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.8 0.0 -
Ross River virus infection 0 16 4 22 1 0 2 16 61 88 34 6,596 765 651.0 1.2 - 7,323 5,438.0 1.3 -
West Nile/Kunjin virus infection 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 6 3 0.2 15.0 1.9 6 1.0 6.0 2.6
Zoonoses
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Australian bat lyssavirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Brucellosis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 14 5 5.0 1.0 - 21 20.8 1.0 -
Leptospirosis 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 6 3 113 32 26.0 1.2 - 145 98.0 1.5 -
Lyssavirus infecton (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Ornithosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 15 5 7.8 0.6 - 26 45.8 0.6 -
Q fever 0 2 0 3 2 0 0 0 7 18 18 346 109 115.0 0.9 - 532 481.0 1.1 -
Tularaemia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis 0 4 0 2 1 0 2 3 12 11 14 263 75 103.6 0.7 - 374 410.8 0.9 -
Leprosy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 3 4.0 0.8 - 14 12.0 1.2 -
Meningococcal disease (invasive) 0 7 1 1 1 0 4 2 20 23 13 227 109 62.2 1.8 10.3 333 187.0 1.8 75.4
Tuberculosis 2 9 0 10 2 0 10 7 40 61 58 886 313 320.6 1.0 - 1,368 1,310.2 1.0 -
Totals 652 22,384 432 12,553 4,545 770 1,420 1,817 44,178 46,122 24,326 318,910 188,238        425,362       
top of page